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gray-scale metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the general preparation of metallographic specimens and the methods of macroscopic and microscopic examination. Usually, gray-scale (black-and-white) metallography is sufficient for microstructural analysis of cast irons. The article discusses the use of color metallography of gray irons and ductile irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...: Nonferrous Alloys and Special Purpose Materials , Vol 2 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 950 – 977 The fine scale of cemented carbide microstructures necessitates the use of the highest practical magnifications in optical metallography, requiring high optical resolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... 1 Henry Clifton Sorby (1826–1908), geologist, petrographer, mineralogist, and founder of metallography. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 6 Flow lines in a forged 4140 steel hook. Specimen was etched using 50% HCl. 0.5×. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 7 Case-hardened layer in W1 tool steel. Specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or intersected by either the bottom or right edge, or both, are selected. (d) Objects selected based on a single characteristic point, the center of gravity Fig. 8 Cementite particles in the microstructure of AISI W2 steel. Gray-scale (left) and binary (right) images of the particles are visible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., despite the solid-state metallic matrix being completely pearlitic ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 (a) Micrograph of color-etched compacted graphite iron sample with an average silicon concentration of 2.2 %. (b) Local silicon concentration map of the same sample. The color scale between the images indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...-grit silicon carbide paper. Original magnification 200× Fig. 65 Same area as imaged in Fig. 64 , with the use of green filtration Fig. 66 Image of chrome oxide ceramic coating to be processed for determination of percentage porosity Fig. 67 Gray-scale histogram of chrome...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Newton's rings: an abbreviated scale Table 1 Newton's rings: an abbreviated scale Path difference nm Å Color 0 0 Black 40 400 Iron gray 158 1580 Bluish gray 234 2340 Greenish white 259 2590 White 332 3320 Bright yellow 430 4300 Brownish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., the hardenability is variable on a local scale, where the regions containing the highest additive content have the highest hardenability. Fig. 1 Hybrid alloy using a prealloyed low-alloy steel base containing (wt%) 0.4 Mn, 1.25 Mo, and 1.4 Ni with 1 wt% elemental Cu plus 0.7 wt% graphite additions (FLC-4805...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... on the applications of etching and examination of uranium alloys, at both macro and micro scales, in characterizing the grain structures, segregation patterns, inclusions, and the metal flow geometries produced by solidification and mechanical working processes. References References 1. Holden A.N...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... as dendrites, and the graphite becomes spheroidal ( Fig. 25c ). The length scale of the flake graphite (the interlamellar spacing) is a function of cooling rate and composition. At high cooling rates, low CE, or low sulfur, the spacing decreases and graphite shape changes from lamellar type A ( Fig. 22a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in commercial aluminum alloys Morphology Phase Color of precipitates under light microscope Identification Birefringes Other methods (a) Needles β-AlFeSi Gray Moderate, light to dark gray Selective etching, EDS Al 7 Cu 2 Fe Light gray, outlined Moderate, light to dark gray Selective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... term used in metallography to describe features observed under the microscope, as seen in the micrograph from Fig. 6 , which shows graphite and pearlite in a gray iron. The nanoscale (atomic scale) is of the order of 10 −9 m (nanometers) and describes the atomic morphology of the S/L interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of oxide scale layer on steel. Note the phases in the layer. Unetched. Original magnification 360× Fig. 30 Microstructure of UNS G10800 steel bar with decarburization at the surface. 4% picral etch. Original magnification 100× Fig. 28 Sulfur print of strand-cast steel slab showing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectrum image databases, resulting in elemental images in which the gray or color scale is related to elemental concentration. See the article “Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis” in this Volume for detailed explanations and applications. Transmission Electron Microscopy A major benefit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint. The surface layer is scale (iron oxide) from forging the wrought iron. Beneath the scale is a layer of columnar ferrite grains. Below this zone, the grains are smaller and equiaxed. At the bottom of the field, the ferrite grains are larger and show...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by minimum tensile strength (MPa) of separately cast samples. The standard also allows manufacturer and purchaser to agree to use cast-on samples and hardness values as criteria. These cast-on mandatory values are dependent on the relevant wall thickness. The strength scale by no means connotes a scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...), hydrogen-reduced mill scale (Pyron D63) with particles containing fine, internal pores and some coarse pores. As-polished. 180× Fig. 11 Water-atomized iron (−80 mesh), Arrows indicate fine particles agglomerated to coarser ones during annealing. As-polished. 960× Fig. 12 Water-atomized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... scale was established using the Imperial system of units, but no difficulty is introduced by metric measurements. The ASTM grain size equation is: (Eq 12) n = 2 G − 1 where n is the number of grains per square inch at 100×. Multiplication of n by 15.5 gives the number of grains...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... intercept length, l Number of grains intercepted by a line of fixed length Number of grains per unit volume, N V Average grain volume, V These parameters can be related to the ASTM grain size number, G . The ASTM grain-size scale was established using the Imperial system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are often present in castings, can cause interference with image analysis detection of the graphite because they have overlapping gray scales. When the specimen must be etched to see the constituent of interest, it is best to etch the specimen so that only the constituent of interest is revealed...