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gray-scale metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the general preparation of metallographic specimens and the methods of macroscopic and microscopic examination. Usually, gray-scale (black-and-white) metallography is sufficient for microstructural analysis of cast irons. The article discusses the use of color metallography of gray irons and ductile irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... pearlitic ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 (a) Micrograph of color-etched compacted graphite iron sample with an average silicon concentration of 2.2 %. (b) Local silicon concentration map of the same sample. The color scale between the images indicates the silicon concentration. The highest silicon concentrations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for a wide range of wear applications including metalcutting, mining, construction, rock drilling, metal forming, structural and fluid-handling components, and wear parts. Metallographic Considerations The fine scale of cemented carbide microstructures necessitates the use of the highest practical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... materialography). The examination of structure may be done over a wide range of length scales or magnification levels, ranging from a visual or low-magnification (∼20×) examination to magnifications over 1,000,000× with electron microscopes. Metallography may also include the examination of crystal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... ). Fig. 1 Gray-scale images of microstructures (left) and binary representations of selected features (right). (a) Grains in austenitic stainless steel. (b) Pores in sintered CeO 2 . (c) Pearlite areas in carbon steel bar One should take into consideration that images can be transferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... a discussion on etching to reveal grain structure. The article also provides recommendations for metallographic examination of some standard coatings. abrasives cleaning deformation final polishing grinding manufacturing defects metallography polishing lubricants sectioning specimen mounting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... from 100 to 350 MPa (19 to 51 ksi). The standard also allows manufacturer and purchaser to agree to use cast-on samples (samples attached to the casting) and hardness values as criteria. The cast-on mandatory values are dependent on the relevant wall thickness. The strength scale does...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Knoop hardness bcc body-centered cubic HR Rockwell hardness (requires scale desig- ministration bct body-centered tetragonal NBS National Bureau of Standards nation, such as HRC for Rockwell C hard- nm nanometer ness) No. number NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission ns nanosecond OD outside diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... They include a high-intensity illuminating source, a microscope, and often capability for examination of specimen surfaces using polarized light, phase contrast, oblique illumination, dark-field illumination, and bright-field illumination. Metallographs can be rather simple units or full-scale research...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-sintering heat treatments determine the final microstructure. In many cases where particulate alloying additives are used in the powder mixture, the chemical composition of the material through the part volume is not homogeneous. Consequently, the hardenability is variable on a local scale, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and boron, can be measured with useful accuracy as major constituents in fluorides, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and borides. Quantitative compositional mapping can be performed on x-ray spectrum image databases, resulting in elemental images in which the gray or color scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in Stead's reagent for 2.5 h (a) reveals coarse grains, for 1.5 h (b) shows fine grains. Magnification: 14×. Source: Ref 11 The length scale (size) of the eutectic grains depends on cooling rate and inoculation, with higher cooling rate and inoculation promoting a higher number of grains...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by minimum tensile strength (MPa) of separately cast samples. The standard also allows manufacturer and purchaser to agree to use cast-on samples and hardness values as criteria. These cast-on mandatory values are dependent on the relevant wall thickness. The strength scale by no means connotes a scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the metallography and microstructures of wrought and cast aluminum and aluminum alloys. It describes the role of major alloying elements and their effect on phase formation and the morphologies of constituents formed by liquid-solid and/or solid-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., with the aid of black and white images. The article also provides information on the applications of etching and examination of uranium alloys, at both macro and micro scales, in characterizing the grain structures, segregation patterns, inclusions, and the metal flow geometries produced by solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... spacing and eutectic lamellar spacing). The term microstructure is the classic term used in metallography to describe features observed under the microscope, as seen in the micrograph from Fig. 6 , which shows graphite and pearlite in a gray iron. The nanoscale (atomic scale) is of the order of 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of field metallography and describes the important material characteristics and other aspects to be considered before performing any metallographic procedure. It investigates the various stages of sample preparation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... scale was established using the Imperial system of units, but no difficulty is introduced by metric measurements. The ASTM grain size equation is: (Eq 12) n = 2 G − 1 where n is the number of grains per square inch at 100×. Multiplication of n by 15.5 gives the number of grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... that shrinkage cavities, which are often present in castings, can cause interference with image analysis detection of the graphite because they have overlapping gray scales. When the specimen must be etched to see the constituent of interest, it is best to etch the specimen so that only the constituent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... grains. Etched in hot 50% HCl + 50% water. Scale is 6 cm. Fig. 25 SEM macrograph of dendrites in the shrinkage region of a steel casting. Original magnification 42× Another example of a macrostructure of a steel component is seen in Fig. 26 , where a used railroad rail was cross...