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gray-box modeling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... an outline of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling. black-box modeling gray-box modeling hybrid modeling microstructure white-box modeling THE BENEFITS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of the pyrolysis reactions for both phenolic novolac and phenolic urethane cold box resins and the kinetic parameters needed for modeling are described in Ref 3 and 4 . Pyrolysis of these resins results in the formation of a complex mixture of fixed gases (methane and carbon monoxide), light gases, volatile...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... dimensional tolerances, and can be used for a large number of castings before pattern repair or rework is necessary. Metal patterns and core boxes are normally made from aluminum alloys, gray iron, ductile iron, steel, or stainless steel. Metal patterns are required for shell molds and cores and molds...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... true metal casting facility flask to modernize molding practices (which had been carried out in pits on the floor by use of pattern boards tied together or in crude box frames). He would later initiate the use of coke as a furnace fuel for iron production. 1722—A.F. de Reamur, recognized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... after stripping from the core box. After 1 h, it builds to 80 to 95% of its total potential strength. The low or zero nitrogen levels make this process popular for gray and ductile iron applications. Typical chemical levels in coremaking for cast iron are 0.7 to 1.5% resin level, based on the weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., with (a) the very small box straddling the dendrite tip, shown within the offset box (red in the Online Edition), (b) the offset box and its relation to the dendritic structure of Fig. 1(a) (green in the Online Edition), and (c) the gray-scale region (blue in the Online Edition). Note that the scale of the REV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the intensity trace (gray graph) along the line drawn on the image. Digitizing this one-dimensional signal requires sampling both axes—distance and intensity—as represented by the grid of vertical and horizontal lines. The digital values are approximations of the intensity trace to the nearest grid intersection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is attributed to the development of melting equipment capable of producing greater air draft (the box-bellows furnace) and to the abundant supply of the necessary raw materials. Evidence suggests that blast furnaces that convert raw iron ore into pig iron, which can be remelted in a cupola furnace to produce...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... for machining two or more surfaces simultaneously or for machining conjugate surfaces (such as machining a spur gear with a tool in the form of a gear lock). In other applications, as in cutting closely spaced parallel grooves, a conventional box tool holder is mounted on the tool head, and two or three cutting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Dimensional control Expendable mold with permanent patterns  Bonded sand processes   Green sand All 5 Yes Unlimited …   CO 2 sand All 2 Unlimited …   Cold box All 2 Yes Unlimited …   Hot box All 2 Yes Unlimited …   Shell All 3 Yes Small to medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... with different configurations (e.g., either two- or three-sided heating configurations in box-type furnaces). Medium: The atmosphere in the furnace is either protective gas or other heat treating gas (e.g., endothermic gas for carburization). There is a fan to circulate the gas in the furnace where the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... cellular automaton microstructure with equiaxed grains. (c) Microstructure near the slab surface within box “O” after rolling. Note grains elongated in the rolling direction. Open regions, such as those shown by the encircled examples, are because grain-boundary continuity is not enforced across element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... edges of the reconstruction box and thus lie completely inside the analyzed volume. These 16 grains are presented in Fig. 7(b) , with the external grains removed and with a different crystallographic coloring scheme, in which the color at each location on the β grain boundaries now corresponds...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... should fit snugly onto the rail. The tool box and apron should be free of spring and excessive wear to permit the apron to seat in its clapper box. The planer should also be equipped with tool lifters to prevent the carbide tools from dragging or bouncing on the return stroke. Sufficient power must...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... a scanning electron microscope. The workpiece is a rectangular plate of high-purity gold that was polished on the sides so that the plastic deformation of the shear process can be readily observed. The boxed area in (a), which is shown at a higher magnification in (b), shows the shear fronts, numbered 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... castings in a tight furnace or box will generate its own partially protective atmosphere. The excess carbon in the iron can produce an atmosphere with as high as 60% carbon monoxide in a reasonably tight enclosure. This method will not prevent the formation of a very light oxide layer on the castings...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that apply to molding a pattern apply also to molding a sand core. The core must be freed from the core box by moving the box away from the core in a direction generally perpendicular to the face of the core box. Loose pieces that have been placed in the core box to assist in producing the shape of the core...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and 87 ksi), respectively. (c) Cast box section. Application of the same loads as in (a) produces outer fiber stresses of 255 and 310 MPa (37 and 45 ksi), respectively. (d) Cast U-section. Application of the same loads as in (a) produces outer fiber stresses of 303 and 186 MPa (44 and 27 ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... iron and occasionally austempered ductile iron. The new generation of gear boxes is designed in pearlitic DI, which replaced gray iron. High-silicon DI offering higher yield strength and elongation may create new possibilities for foundries in this sector. The outstanding mechanical characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... 250–1000 … … CO 2 /silicate 0.1–100,000 0.2–220,000 1–1,000 >5 >0.2 >6 >0.25 6–25 250–1000 … … Cold box 0.1–100,000 0.2–220,000 1–1,000 >5 >0.2 >6 >0.25 6–25 250–1000 … … Shell mold 0.1–50 0.2–110 1,000+ >2 >0.1 >3 >0.1 3...