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gray-box modeling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the principles and achievements of each of the various microstructural models, including black-box modeling, gray-box modeling, white-box modeling, and hybrid modeling. black-box modeling gray-box modeling hybrid modeling microstructure white-box modeling THE BENEFITS of microstructural refinement...
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
methodologies, with (a) the very small box straddling the dendrite tip, shown within the offset box (red in the Online Edition), (b) the offset box and its relation to the dendritic structure of Fig. 1(a) (green in the Online Edition), and (c) the gray-scale region (blue in the Online Edition). Note More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... gradient, Gibbs free energy, shear modulus of rigidity, COD crack opening displacement modulus of elasticity in shear CR computed radiography GCI gray cast iron CT chilling tendency GFN grain neness number CTE coef cient of thermal expansion GI graphite iron CTOD crack-tip opening displacement GMAW gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for both phenolic novolac and phenolic urethane cold box resins and the kinetic parameters needed for modeling are described in Ref 3 and 4 . Pyrolysis of these resins results in the formation of a complex mixture of fixed gases (methane and carbon monoxide), light gases, volatile compounds...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... dimensional tolerances, and can be used for a large number of castings before pattern repair or rework is necessary. Metal patterns and core boxes are normally made from aluminum alloys, gray iron, ductile iron, steel, or stainless steel. Metal patterns are required for shell molds and cores and molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... model that could calculate the cooling curves of gray iron. His seminal paper was the first attempt to predict solidification microstructure through computational modeling and the first attempt to validate such a model against cooling curves. Nobody ever remembers the first one to be second in any human...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... after stripping from the core box. After 1 h, it builds to 80 to 95% of its total potential strength. The low or zero nitrogen levels make this process popular for gray and ductile iron applications. Typical chemical levels in coremaking for cast iron are 0.7 to 1.5% resin level, based on the weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., with (a) the very small box straddling the dendrite tip, shown within the offset box (red in the Online Edition), (b) the offset box and its relation to the dendritic structure of Fig. 1(a) (green in the Online Edition), and (c) the gray-scale region (blue in the Online Edition). Note that the scale of the REV...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... manufactured goods and in all capital goods machinery used in manufacturing. Some of the major market areas of castings are listed in Table 1 ( Ref 2 ). Major markets for metal castings Table 1 Major markets for metal castings Ferrous castings Gray iron Ingot molds Construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic recrystallization simulations is more difficult, and artifacts of visualization (but not state variables) can be introduced ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 5 Recrystallization modeling. (a) Original undeformed cellular automaton (CA) grain structure in gray and the recrystallized grains in black. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the intensity trace (gray graph) along the line drawn on the image. Digitizing this one-dimensional signal requires sampling both axes—distance and intensity—as represented by the grid of vertical and horizontal lines. The digital values are approximations of the intensity trace to the nearest grid intersection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... the amount of time (or labor) required for sectioning have included microtoming ( Ref 31 ) or micromilling ( Ref 16 ). Regarding the computational challenge, consider that 250 images captured at low resolution (640 by 480 pixels) result in a 3-D image of 75 megabytes for gray-scale images (8 bits per pixel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... types of iron castings also are routinely heat treated as a regular part of their production process. For example, malleable iron castings are subjected to a malleablizing treatment; the highest ductility grades of ductile iron are often annealed; permanent mold cast gray irons are annealed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in. invites trouble. Cores in Permanent Mold Castings Cores in the permanent mold process may be of gray iron, steel, sand or plaster. Metal cores may be either movable or stationary. Stationary cores must be perpendicular to the parting line to permit removal of the casting from the mold, and must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... in the furnace do not radiate as much energy as an ideal blackbody; however, the total radiation emitted by these bodies, which are called “gray,” still generally follows the T 4 proportionality. At the same time, the fact that not all the radiation leaving surface 1 will reach surface 2, because radiation...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... generation, and temperature, but also result in longer, continuous chips that remain in contact longer with the tool face, thus causing more frictional heat. Chips of this type are severely deformed and have a characteristic curl. On the other hand, some materials, such as gray cast iron, lack the ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...–220,000 1–1,000 >5 >0.2 >6 >0.25 6–25 250–1000 … … Cold box 0.1–100,000 0.2–220,000 1–1,000 >5 >0.2 >6 >0.25 6–25 250–1000 … … Shell mold 0.1–50 0.2–110 1,000+ >2 >0.1 >3 >0.1 3–12.5 125–500 ±0.5–100 ±0.02–4 Ceramic 0.1–5,000...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is revealed by the various gray levels. Elongated columnar grains are present at the bottom of the casting, while a more isotropic grain size is observed at the top. Only magnification of the grains toward the top of the casting reveals the dendritic nature of the equiaxed microstructure made of the α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... growth instability of the growth front. Figure 1(a) presents a longitudinal cross section of a 0.17 m (7 in.) Al-7wt%Si cylindrical ingot. The grain structure is revealed by the various gray levels. Elongated columnar grains are present at the bottom of the casting, while a more isotropic grain size...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The tables only provide a brief overview only for general approximate comparison. Ferrous metals, steel, gray and ductile iron, account for nearly 75% of all metals cast. On the nonferrous side, high-pressure die casting (HPDC) is the dominant process, largely because it readily accommodates scrap-based...