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gray iron

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with an overview of classes and applications of gray iron. It discusses the castability of gray iron in terms of section sensitivity and fluidity. The article provides information on the dimensions of prevailing sections recommended for gray irons and reviews the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the melting and poring practices, heat treatment, and applications of different types of high-alloy graphitic iron, namely, high-silicon gray irons, high-silicon ductile irons, nickel-alloyed austenitic irons, austenitic gray irons, austenitic ductile irons, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides information on the classification, microstructure, castability and section sensitivity of gray iron. It describes properties of the test bar and provides a short note on fatigue limit in reversed bending. Although the ASTM size B test bar is the bar most commonly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast iron, which usually refers to an in situ composite of stable eutectic graphite in a steel matrix, includes the major classifications of gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, malleable iron, and white iron. This article discusses melting, pouring, desulfurization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processes such as annealing, normalizing, surface hardening, tempering, stress relieving, quenching, and austempering, on hardness and tensile properties of cast irons, namely gray irons, ductile irons, malleable irons, and austenitic irons. austenitic irons cast irons ductile irons gray irons...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast irons primarily are iron alloys that contain more than 2% carbon and from 1 to 3% silicon. This article provides a description of iron-iron carbide-silicon system; and discusses the classification, composition, and characteristics of cast irons, such as gray, ductile, malleable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroless plating electroplating erosion resistance finishing flame hardening fused dry-resin coatings gray iron hardfacing hot dip coating induction hardening iron castings laser surface processing mechanical cleaning non-mechanical cleaning organic coatings pearlitic malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of gray irons and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the fatigue fracture, solidification structure, and crack...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite in CG iron. Full deep etch. 395× Abstract This article discusses the graphite morphology, chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, and applications of compacted graphite (CG) irons. It compares the selected properties of gray, ductile and CG irons, and lists their...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the production stages of iron foundry casting, with particular emphasis on the melting practices, molten metal treatment, and feeding of molten metal into sand molds. It discusses the molten metal treatments for high-silicon gray, high-nickel ductile, and malleable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inclusions are reported to improve resistance to thermal cracking. These indefinite chill rolls are cast in thick-wall gray iron chiller molds in roll diameters of up to 1015 mm (40 in.) or more. The silicon-to-chromium ratios and inoculation with ferro-silicon are carefully controlled to control the amount...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Typical composition ranges for unalloyed cast irons Type Composition, % TC (a) Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Cu P S Ce Mg Gray iron 3.25–3.50 0.50–0.90 1.80–2.30 0.05–0.45 0.05–0.20 0.05–0.10 0.15–0.40 0.12 max 0.15 max … … Malleable iron 2.45–2.55 0.35–0.55...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., as opposed to 230 °C, or 415 °F). Nevertheless, some C n clusters (as discussed earlier in this section) or undissolved graphite may act as heterogeneous nuclei for graphite formation. When two separate melt charges of similar composition containing white iron and gray iron are compared, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... compounds, most of which have not been studied. However, aqueous corrosion research has been conducted on a number of intermetallic compounds for low-temperature structural applications, but most of this research has been conducted on nickel, iron, and titanium aluminides. More detailed reviews of this...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ductile iron fatigue properties fracture toughness hardness properties materials selection mechanical properties physical properties tensile properties shear and torsional properties DUCTILE IRON, also known as nodular iron or spheroidal graphite iron, is second to gray iron in the amount of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-wash to protect the core sand against penetration. In general, the technology of molding and pouring malleable iron is similar to that used to produce gray iron. Heat treating is done in high-production controlled-atmosphere continuous furnaces or batch-type furnaces, again depending on production...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) fall between those of gray flake graphite irons (FG) and ductile irons (SG). This position gives CG a desirable combination of properties for certain applications of high interest. Compact graphite iron has higher strength, stiffness, and fatigue strength than FG with better thermal conductivity and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shaped graphite nodules instead of flakes, as in gray iron, or small graphite spherulites, as in ductile iron. Malleable iron is produced by first casting the iron as a white iron and then heat treating the white cast iron to convert the iron carbide into the irregularly shaped nodules of graphite. This...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steels are deliberately designed to produce a small amount of graphite in the structure to enhance machinability ( Fig. 4 ). The graphite in cast irons is produced in a variety of forms, such as flake, compacted, and spheroidal. Gray cast iron containing flake graphite is quite brittle; however, if the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... critical points ( Fig. 21 ) is used in this section. It is well known that mechanical properties of cast iron strongly depend on the amount and shape of graphite. In turn, for hypoeutectic gray irons, the amount of graphite depends on the amount of eutectic. Fig. 21 The iron-carbon diagram with...