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gravity-poured castings

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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 10 (a) Gravity pour mold and (b) resulting test casting More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... features of the system. entrainment defects naturally pressurized filling system gravity-poured castings prepriming techniques filters mold-filling designs FILLING the casting cavity with molten metal can be accomplished in various ways. Filling methods differ among the various casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... casting with molten aluminum fed by gravity, low pressure, vacuum and centrifugal pressure, and squeeze casting. It discusses the major variables that affect the life of permanent molds, including pouring temperature, casting shape, cooling methods, heating cycles, storage, and cleaning. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract Aggregate molding, or sand casting, is the gravity pouring of liquid metal into a mold that is made of a mixture molded against a permanent pattern. This article summarizes the most important materials in the process of sand casting of cast iron, including different types of molding...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... into the casting. This is achieved by designing the liquid front to progress only uphill in a continuous uninterrupted upward advance (in the case of gravity-poured casting processes, from the base of the sprue onward). This rule implies: Only ottom-gating is permissible. No stopping due to arrest...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the casting requires that the metal enter the mold cavity in a non-turbulent manner. As this is not possible using gravity pouring methods for most castings, because the head height of sprues accelerates the metal to speeds where turbulent flow takes place, counter-gravity or liquid-level mold filling...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... have traditionally been transferred from the melting vessel to a mold or casting unit by tapout or lip pouring (essentially gravity flow systems) or by using an intermediate ladle. Molten-metal transfer/recirculation pumps are now commonly used with aluminum, magnesium, zinc, and lead alloys. The pumps...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of counter-gravity mold filling, as shown in Fig. 11 . Counter-gravity pouring systems allow the rate of fill to be controlled precisely; it can be speeded up or slowed down as necessary to compensate for changes in the cross-sectional area of the casting. In filling the mold from the bottom, the rate...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... than those of expendable mold castings. The improved mechanical properties of permanent mold castings provide part of the justification for selecting this process over competing gravity casting options. There is a downsprue into which molten metal is introduced from a pouring basin, from which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Filling of Iron Castings Gray cast iron is one of the most tolerant of metals when used with poorly designed filling systems. There are good reasons for this. The oxide bifilms that are entrained in even greater numbers during pouring act as substrates for the growth of graphite flakes, so...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... molds Colloidal silica bond Plaster bond Counter-gravity low-pressure casting Permanent mold processes Die casting High-pressure die casting Low-pressure die casting Gravity die casting (permanent mold) (a) Centrifugal casting Vertical centrifugal casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... centrifugal casting, can be removed. Melting and pouring temperatures of tin-base Babbitts Table 2 Melting and pouring temperatures of tin-base Babbitts ASTM B 23 alloy No. Specific gravity Composition, % Melting point Complete liquefaction Proper pouring temperature Cu Sn Sb Pb °C °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... aging alloys. A number of such compositions are in commercial use. Zinc is also commonly found in secondary gravity and die casting alloys. Zinc does not appear to have a significant effect on tensile properties in most aluminum-silicon-base casting alloys ( Ref 11 ). However, it segregates to grain...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... control THE PERMANENT MOLD CASTING PROCESS involves the production of castings by pouring molten metal into permanent metal molds using gravity, low pressure, vacuum, or centrifugal pressure. Simple reusable cores are usually made of metal. More complex cores are made of sand, plaster, ceramics...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and permanent molds and their production considerations. It describes the speed of rotation, mold speeds curves, and pouring techniques that are considered in the operation of vertical centrifugal casting machines. vertical centrifugal casting machines sand molds vertical centrifugal casting mold...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by skimming the surface, or avoidance of the sedimented inclusions by careful pouring so as not to entrain the inclusions within the pouring stream or into the transfer ladle or casting mold. However, two factors combine to render such gravity-related processes less than efficient—at least for light...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the mold soon after pouring. However, with a vertical mold axis, there is a tendency for the molten metal to form a parabolic shape due to the competing gravitational and centrifugal forces. True Centrifugal Casting This method, also referred to as just centrifugal casting, is characterized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... volume of the aluminum castings poured in sand molds is lower than high-pressure die casting and permanent molds. However, high-integrity components such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, and helicopter gearboxes for aerospace and automotive castings make the process high value. Figure 1 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Table 2 Compositions and physical properties of lead-base babbitts ASTM B 23 alloy No. Specific gravity Composition, % Compressive yield point (a) (b) Ultimate compressive strength (a) (c) Hardness, HB (d) Melting point Complete liquefaction Proper pouring temperature At 19 °C (66...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., not only the gas but also the surface oxide and solidified pieces in the plunger sleeve are sources of many casting defects. In the case of gravity casting the inlet melt velocity can be complicated. For example, as seen in Fig. 3 , the most accurate simulation would consider the melt flow resulting...