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grain-boundary sliding

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract A sliding bearing (plain bearing) is a machine element designed to transmit loads or reaction forces to a shaft that rotates relative to the bearing. This article discusses the properties of bearing materials. It provides information on bearing material systems: single-metal systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... cyclic stresses. The type and extent of wear in ceramics depends on the process used to prepare the surface. Abusive machining or finishing induces fractures between and within ceramic grains, so that when such a damaged surface is placed in sliding service, it wears away quickly. Wear particles of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... application. Copper-lead alloys continuously cast on steel strip typically consist of copper dendrites perpendicular and securely anchored to the steel back, with an interdendritic lead phase. In contrast, sintered copper-lead alloys of similar composition are composed of more equiaxed copper grains with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... creep process: the stress and strain rate, strain rate or stress and temperature, strain rate or stress and grain size, and strain contributed by boundary sliding and total strain. The article describes the deformation characteristics and mechanisms of low-stress region, intermediate-stress region, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ), and so on. While these have broadened the view of the underlying physics of micrograin superplasticity, controversy still exists on the details of the microscopic process of deformation. A few known facts are: Sliding of grains along grain boundaries is observed ( Ref 46 ) Both grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-composition complex carbides may be present as MC, M 6 C, M 7 C 3 , M 23 C 6 , and M 2 C 3 . As with nickel-base superalloys, carbides must be precipitated at grain boundaries to control gross grain-boundary sliding and migration. Optimum mechanical properties are obtained through the careful balancing of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... the initial stages of sliding, but wear can be mitigated when these platelets are reoriented parallel to the sliding direction, resulting in a (0002) texture conducive to low friction and wear, shown in Fig. 1 ( b , d , e ). However, the grains can also fracture during sliding and be ejected as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... initiate at grain boundaries, the importance of understanding these two parameters is quite evident. Grain-size effects are in essence a trade-off between good creep resistance and premature failure due to grain sliding and reduced tensile strength ( Ref 4 ). Fine grains are known to reduce creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... adhesive sliding contact has been discussed using a two-dimensional coarse-grained numerical simulation ( Ref 23 ). These simulations revealed the existence of a critical length scale that controls the formation of the particles during the adhesive interaction between surface asperities. Only asperity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and T > 0.4 T m in alloys, where T m is the material melting temperature. Note then that the magnitude of the elevated temperature that initiates creep is relative to the material of interest. The damage mechanisms of creep may manifest as grain-boundary movement or sliding, dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ), as shown in Fig. 8 . This can be understood in several ways. When the HAZ begins to accumulate strain from residual stress, grain boundary sliding is one mechanism that operates to accommodate the strain. Large grain size does not accommodate the strain as readily as smaller grain size, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... associated with cracking at grain-boundary triple points. 100×. Fig. 689 : Wedge-type cavities (wedge cracks) form at triple points due to grain-boundary sliding and may be promoted by decohesion at interfaces between grain-boundary precipitates and the matrix, as shown here in a type 316 sample. 600×. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking. The article addresses the effects of various radiation factors on corrosion. The factors include radiation-induced segregation at grain boundaries, radiation hardening, mode of deformation, radiation creep relaxation, and radiolysis. The article discusses a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... addition, the causes of intergranular fracture at austenite grain boundaries and their prevention methods are explored. The article also describes the major mechanisms of bending fatigue crack initiation in carburized steels. alloying carbides carbon content carburized steel carburizing fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... required to highlight specific microstructural features (e.g., second phases, grain boundaries, etc.); a detailed etchant list is reported in Ref 1 and 2 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), on the other hand, is used when higher magnification is required and/or chemical identification of phases is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...-surface region, grains are highly refined (up to a nanometer level). The large reduction in the interparticle distance gives rise to high strain gradients, contributing to the enhancement of dislocation density ( Fig. 6b ). High strain regions in recrystallized grain boundaries and within the subgrains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... experimental relationship between Φ and material hardness of various alloys (up to ~1000 HV) by means of a pin abrasion test and employing abrasive papers with SiC grains with three different average diameters (i.e., three different attack angles, approximately 15, 10, and 5°). The researchers determined that...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) only begin to understand the underpinning failure mechanisms of PVD coatings, as discussed subsequently for TiN and DLC coatings. The structure of TiN coating deposited by various PVD processes is generally columnar with some evidence of equiaxial grains near the interface ( Ref 50 , 51...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... minimize tarnishing. Nickel underlayers (barrier coats) are used to prevent migration of silver through the gold plate. Recent studies indicate that migration of silver along nickel grain boundaries is rapid at high temperatures. Hence, a nickel barrier coat is questionable for high-temperature...