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grain-boundary segregation

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 23 Grain-boundary segregation measurements in Alloy 600 and type 304 stainless steel. Shown are auger electron spectroscopy measurements of phosphorus segregation in the two alloys as compared with model prediction for phosphorus segregation in nickel. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alterations. Grain boundaries are thus the preferential region for congregation and segregation of impurities. Weakening or embrittlement can also occur by preferential phase precipitation or absorption of environmental species in the grain boundaries. In addition, the grain-boundary regions are also weakened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... phases present in the matrix and at the grain boundaries, composition of phases, grain size, grain-boundary segregation, and residual stresses Crack geometry, which includes length, width, and aspect ratio; and crack opening and crack tip closure Important Fracture Features Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking. The article addresses the effects of various radiation factors on corrosion. These include radiation-induced segregation at grain boundaries, radiation hardening, mode of deformation, radiation creep relaxation, and radiolysis. The article discusses a variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006964
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
..., the elements with low partition coefficients are segregated along the interdendritic regions or grain boundaries. These segregated elements are susceptible to cavity nucleation and accelerate creep fracture. Moreover, microsegregation leads to the depletion of elements in the matrix and would normally lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and carbides (heat-affected zone grain boundaries cracking), are also discussed. The article examines the parameters that affect heat-affected zone liquation cracking and presents a solution for each problem. carbides hardening nonferrous high-temperature materials physical metallurgy segregation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... composition-depth profiling using ion beam sputtering is widely used to expose the subsurface region of the sample, despite the sputtering artifacts discussed later; the method is used in applications relating to deposited thin films, coatings, and various surface-interface phenomena, such as segregation...
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 24 Stress-corrosion cracking behavior of nickel with phosphorus and sulfur segregation. (a) Polarization curve for nickel in 1 N H 2 SO 4 at 25 °C (77 °F). (b) Strain to failure and percent intergranular fracture for 26% phosphorus segregation at grain boundaries. (c) Strain to failure More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... from clevage and ductile rupture features on mixed mode fracture surfaces. In addition, the impurity segregants are often present on the grain boundaries in concentrations as low as 0.1 at.% in a layer less than 1 nm thick. Auger electron spectroscopy is currently the only technique capable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...% purity still contains on the order of 10 16 foreign atoms per cubic centimeter, most of which have a tendency to segregate to grain boundaries and decrease the grain-boundary energy. For grain-boundary energy computations, this may be less serious than for atomistic simulations of grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with a creep process: the stress and strain rate, strain rate or stress and temperature, strain rate or stress and grain size, and strain contributed by boundary sliding and total strain. The article describes the deformation characteristics and mechanisms of low-stress region, intermediate-stress region...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... This is because grain boundaries are sites for precipitation and segregation, which make them chemically and physically different from the grains themselves. Intergranular attack is defined as the selective dissolution of grain boundaries or closely adjacent regions without appreciable attack of the grains...
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Published: 15 December 2019
the greatest contrast between grain and twin boundaries and the austenitic matrix for performing grain size measurement. DIC vividly reveals alloy segregation. More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 19 Photomicrograph of the ZA91A-F die casting alloy, Mg-9Al-0.13Mn-0.7Zn, showing the particles of Mg 17 Al 12 at the boundaries of small, cored grains. Segregation (coring) in the grains and absence of precipitated discontinuous Mg 17 Al 12 are results of the rapid cooling rate of die More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 37 Phosphorus segregation was investigated from mating areas of carbide precipitates on grain-boundary facets of 30 HRC NiCrMoV steel. Source: Ref 107 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had aluminum nitrides segregated to the grain boundaries More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had aluminum nitrides segregated to the grain boundaries More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and predict remnant life. Embrittlement of Iron Before discussing the embrittlement of steels, this article will first examine the embrittlement of iron because the number of such studies are few compared to those for steels. Grain-boundary segregation of elements such as oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus...
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 20 Normalized intensities of Auger peaks (as a function of depth below the surface) from antimony, sulfur, and phosphorus segregated to grain boundaries or free surfaces (depth profiling by argon ion sputtering). Source: Ref 99 More