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grain-boundary segregation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (FEGSTEM). Source: Ref 72 Fig. 15 Dependence of radiation-induced segregation on homologous temperature and dose rate for austenitic stainless steels. LWR, light water reactor Fig. 17 Variation of the grain-boundary (GB) chromium concentration profile in commercial-purity type 304...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of nonferrous high-temperature materials that affects weldability on the precipitates used for age hardening (strain-age cracking). Those precipitates associated with solidification and solidification segregation, primarily Laves and carbides (heat-affected zone grain boundaries cracking), are also discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... region shown in Fig. 34 . Source: Ref 107 Fig. 37 Phosphorus segregation was investigated from mating areas of carbide precipitates on grain-boundary facets of 30 HRC NiCrMoV steel. Source: Ref 107 Fig. 38 Secondary electron image of a bond pad from a chip suspected...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 1983 , p 717 – 726 10.1007/BF02643788 21. Johnson W.C. and Stein D.F. , A Study of Grain Boundary Segregants in Thermally Embrittled Maraging Steel , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , 1974 , p 549 – 554 10.1007/BF02644648 22. Pow E.C. , Gerberich W.W. , and Toth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of High Strength Steels in a Gaseous Hydrogen Atmosphere , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 14 , 1983 , p 717 – 726 10.1007/BF02643788 25. Johnson W.C. and Stein D.F. , A Study of Grain Boundary Segregants in Thermally Embrittled Maraging Steel , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , 1974 , p 549...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the actual concentration of the species b and c in the bulk. Fig. 23 Grain-boundary segregation measurements in Alloy 600 and type 304 stainless steel. Shown are auger electron spectroscopy measurements of phosphorus segregation in the two alloys as compared with model prediction for phosphorus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...: Application of AES to the Study of Grain-Boundary Chemistry Example 7: Application of AES to Stress Corrosion Crack Fracture Surfaces Example 8: Surface Segregation Example 9: Application of AES to Tribology Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... , Grain Boundary Segregation and Intergranular Fracture in Molybdenum , Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. , 1980 8. Wang D. , Wang Z. , Li K. , Ma J. , Liu W. , and Shen Z. , Cracking in Laser Additively Manufactured W: Initiation Mechanism and a Suppression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... environments. This is because grain boundaries are sites for precipitation and segregation, which make them chemically and physically different from the grains themselves. Intergranular attack is defined as the selective dissolution of grain boundaries or closely adjacent regions without appreciable attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... 0.05–0.053 Line I … 1.7 0.4 0.05–0.053 Fig. 20 Normalized intensities of Auger peaks (as a function of depth below the surface) from antimony, sulfur, and phosphorus segregated to grain boundaries or free surfaces (depth profiling by argon ion sputtering). Source: Ref 99...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is favored by barriers to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root of the average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Embrittlement is favored by barriers to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less susceptible to embrittlement but are not immune. The brittle fracture stress varies with the inverse square root...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... after forming 0.25 ×. Fig. 85 Hot shortness in a structural steel caused during rolling by internal LME due to copper segregation. (a) Macrograph of section from toe of flange. 0.4 ×. (b) and (c) Micrographs showing grain-boundary copper films that were molten during rolling. (b) and (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.../BF02649753 57. Seah M.P. , Grain Boundary Segregation and the T-t Dependence of Temper Brittleness , Acta Metall. , Vol 25 , 1977 , p 34 10.1016/0001-6160(77)90153-5 58. Gas P. , Guttmann M. , and Bernardini J. , The Interactive Co-Segregation of Sb and Ni...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) adsorption mechanism. In its simplest form, segregation of metallic or gas-metal impurities can alter the grain-boundary free energy. Furthermore, grain-boundary energy can vary over a temperature range, leading to brittle-ductile fracture transitions and thermally induced brittle or ductile fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... cracking are well understood. The partition and rejection of alloying elements at columnar grain boundaries and ahead of the advancing solid/liquid interface produce significant segregation. The elements of segregation form low-melting phases or eutectic structures to produce highly wetting films at grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microvoid coalescence on the interfaces of grains. Such fractures are regarded as the result of a severe reduction in grain-boundary energy by a Gibbsian (thermodynamic) adsorption mechanism. In its simplest form, segregation of metallic or gas-metal impurities can alter the grain-boundary free energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... of SCC may be submicroscopic and determined by local differences in metal composition, thickness of protective film, concentration of corrodent, and stress concentration. That is, grain-boundary segregation or precipitation can cause the passive layer on the surface of the metal to be locally thinned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... the activation energy for migration is small compared to measured values ( Fig. 48 ). This is commonly attributed to the segregation of impurities to grain boundaries in real materials, whereas totally pure materials are assumed in the simulations. Also, simulation results depend strongly on the quality...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or operating conditions that heat ferritic and austenitic stainless steels to 500 to 900 °C (930 to 1650 °F) cause segregation at the grain boundaries by the precipitation of complex chromium carbides, the formation of sigma phase, or the precipitation of other deleterious phases. The properties...