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grain-boundary

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in fine-grain metals has encompassed many ideas, such as the diffusional creep, dislocation creep with diffusional accommodation at grain boundaries, and concepts of grain-mantle deformation. The article concludes with information on the kinetics of superplastic deformation processes, including low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article reviews network models and their applications for the simulation of various physical phenomena related to grain-boundary migration. It discusses the steps involved in the implementation of two and three-dimensional network models, namely, acquisition and discretization of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of pure irons and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the grain-boundary cavitation; slip lines; intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, grain boundaries, notch and fatigue precrack, dimpled rupture, and fatigue striations of these alloys. fractograph intergranular fracture nickel alloys Fig. 867 Surface of a fracture in a bend-test specimen of Nickel 201 containing 0.02% C, 0.35% Mn, 0.01% S, 0.35% Si, 0.25% Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-overload fractures, impact fractures, microstructure, quench cracking, brittle-in-service failure, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and grain-boundary cracking of tool steel components. These components include diesel engine injector plungers, rivet-heading tools, circular saw blades, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., tension-overload fracture surface, ductile fracture, cone-shaped fracture surface, intergranular crack propagation, transgranular crack propagation, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen damage, and grain-boundary separation of these alloys. Fractographs are also provided for a forged aircraft main-landing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... candy fracture, cleavage fracture, brittle fracture, high-cycle fatigue fracture, fatigue striations, hydrogen-embrittlement failure, creep crack propagation, fatigue crack nucleation, intergranular creep fracture, torsional overload fracture, stress-corrosion cracking, and grain-boundary damage of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract The misorientation of a boundary of a growing grain is defined not only by its crystallography but also by the crystallography of the grain into which it is growing. This article focuses on the Monte Carlo Potts model that is typically used to model grain growth, Zener-Smith pinning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... recrystallization. Fig. 4 Recrystallization diagram for 70-30 brass. Source: Ref 3 Two additional laws ( Ref 4 ) can be added: New grains first originate at grain-boundary triple points and do not grow into deformed grains having identical or slightly deviated crystallographic orientations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lower energy level. All three processes involve diffusion and thus depend on thermal activation to cause rearrangement of dislocations and grain boundaries. The mechanisms of recovery and recrystallization also depend on the extent of plastic deformation (either during hot working or by cold work prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... microstructural or mechanistic description. As a rule of thumb, elongation in excess of 200% is termed as superplasticity. Over the years, a number of superplasticity models have been proposed. A majority of experimental evidences suggests that grain-boundary sliding (GBS) is the dominant deformation mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... superplastic and hot forming processes. Grain-boundary cavitation, observed under temperature and strain-rate conditions for which the boundaries are weaker than the grain interiors, often results from grain-boundary sliding and the concentration of strain around nondeformable particles and hard second phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phenomenological approach, the mesoscale (or grain scale) models take the basic physical mechanisms into account, that is, strain hardening and dynamic recovery, nucleation, grain-boundary migration, and the associated softening effects. Their main advantage, however, is to predict both flow stress and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... (dislocation generation, recovery, nucleation, grain-boundary migration) as well as the precipitation of secondary phases operate at a microscopic scale. However, their behavior is generally averaged over entire grains in order to deal with them in a mesoscopic fashion. This requires the definition of overall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) range. The black voids at grain boundaries are typical of creep damage. 3% nital, 500× (J.R. Kattus, Associated Metallurgical Consultants Inc.) Effect of inclusions on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in ASTM A514F. The conventionally melted electric furnace steel was water quenched from 900 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of equiaxed subgrains (with low misorientations across their boundaries) contained within elongated primary grains ( Ref 2 , Ref 3 ). An example of such microstructural features for an aluminum-lithium alloy is shown in Fig. 1 . Furthermore, the dynamic-recovery process leads to low stresses at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... due to creep deformation, while simultaneously, oxidation in the crack-tip region and oxygen ingress along grain boundaries occur that, in addition to causing material damage, also lead to microstructural changes. Each of the distinct time-dependent damage mechanisms is expected to have its unique...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... grain size, austenite grain size, and prior-austenite grain size. Each type presents particular problems associated with revealing these boundaries so that an accurate rating can be obtained ( Ref 5 ). To complicate matters, a variety of parameters are utilized to define grain size: Average grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in four-point bending at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min (0.02 in./min). Fig. 1278 : Fracture surface shows radial crack lines emanating from the origin, which was a corrosion pit (top). SEM (30° tilt), 115×. Fig. 1279 : Close-up of pit-ceramic interface reveals preferential grain-boundary attack in...