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grain structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... (570 °F). Figure 6 shows the microstructure of water-quenched 36 mm (1.4 in.) diam U-0.75Ti bar. The outside of the bar ( Fig. 6a ) has transformed completely to lenticular alpha prime. The fineness of this structure increases with increasing quench rate. The grain boundaries visible in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... continuous cooling transformation diagram crystal structure decarburization dimensional change grain size grinding heat treatment machining mechanical cracking microcracks microsegregation nonmetallic inclusions phase transformation process design quench distortion quenchants quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... microstructure. The article describes the principles of the PF method and provides information on the applications of the PF method. The CA model is introduced as a computationally efficient method to predict grain structures in castings using the mesoscopic scale of individual grains. The article discusses the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Modeling of structure formation in casting of alloys involves several length scales, ranging from the atomic level to macroscopic scale. Intermediate length scales are used to define the microstructure of the growing phases and the grain structure. This article discusses the principles...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... finer sandpapers, until a mirror-smooth surface is obtained. After the polished surface is etched with acid, the underlying grain structure is revealed. An example of the transformation obtained by grain refinement is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Grain structure in 3004 alloy castings. Top: no...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fraction, grain structure (two-phase grain structures, and nonequiaxed grain structures), grain size, and inclusion content. It also reviews simple relationships between number of grains per unit area, number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain, and number of interceptions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth are microstructural changes that occur during annealing after cold plastic deformation and/or during hot working of metals. This article reviews the structure of the deformed state and describes the changes in the properties and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... smooth functions of boundary misorientation, or boundary plane, or composition, or temperature ( Ref 1 ). It is not just that the boundaries are complicated entities, the grain structures themselves are three-dimensional (3-D) interconnected boundary networks whose evolution cannot be deduced solely from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidification free growth model carbide-boride model grain refinement model constitutional undercooling model thermodynamics NUCLEATION PROCESSES play a key role in the solidification of castings by controlling to a large extent the initial structure type, size scale, and spatial distribution of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... loads when, in addition, sound, dense, good-quality metal of satisfactorily fine grain size has been produced throughout. Metal that is rolled, forged, or extruded develops and retains a fiberlike grain structure that is aligned in the principal direction of working. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... created, and edges with multiple adjoining grain boundaries are reconnected until the topology is restored; that is, the Euler formula is valid again. This structuring is called topological transformation. In nature, this is managed simply by atomic rearrangements to generate the configuration with the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferritic steel. This relationship is extremely important for understanding structure-property relationships in steels. Control of grain size through thermomechanical treatment, heat treatment, and/or microalloying is vital to the control of strength and toughness of most steels. The role of grain size is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... qualitatively the stress (shown by the direction of the arrows) at four positions around the dislocation Individual crystal grains, which have different lattice orientations, are separated by large-angle boundaries ( grain boundaries ). In addition, the individual grains are separated by small-angle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystal chemistries etch at different rates. In addition, crystal defects or disorder within the crystal structure, such as grain boundaries, twin boundaries, chemical gradients, dislocations, and missing atoms on lattices, introduce local differences in lattice energy that have an effect on the corrosion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... modification changes porosity formation in a casting. It describes the mechanisms responsible for silicon modification, as well as the modifications and changes in eutectic nucleation and eutectic grain structure. The article reviews the usage of strontium during process steps in foundry practices. The growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... substantial deformation when revealed through metallographic investigation. cold working composition crystal structure deformation deformation mode deformation rate deformation temperature diffusion creep grain rotation grain-boundary sliding microstructure plastic deformation twinning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the changes in structure and properties that occur when cold worked metals and alloys are annealed. Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth are the three stages of structural change that occur when cold-worked metal is annealed. The driving force and extent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... through its dependence on dislocation velocity, as in the Gilman-Johnston relationship. Thus, the grain contribution to the plastic strain rate is given by: (Eq 22) ε ˙ g ∝ ( σ − g ) p where p is a constant exponent, and g is the internal strength due to defect structure...