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grain size

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic recrystallization (DDRX). The article discusses the assumptions and simplifications for the Avrami analysis. It describes the effects of nucleation and growth rates on recrystallization kinetics and recrystallized grain size based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model for static...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fraction, grain structure (two-phase grain structures, and nonequiaxed grain structures), grain size, and inclusion content. It also reviews simple relationships between number of grains per unit area, number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain, and number of interceptions of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... network models. The main problem with Voronoi tessellations is that they do not yield realistic grain-size distributions. To overcome this difficulty, some modifications to the original Voronoi tessellation have been proposed ( Ref 48 ). For instance, the radical plane method for the packing of spheres...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...—further annealing increases the average size of the grains. The process, known as grain growth, is accomplished by the migration of grain boundaries. In contrast to recrystallization, the boundary moves toward its center of curvature. Some of the grains grow, but others shrink and vanish. Because the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... needed to simulate large-scale industrial applications. monte carlo model grain growth zener-smith pinning recrystallization Potts model COMPLEX MODELS of microstructural evolution are required to predict texture, misorientation distribution, and grain-size distributions of a final rolled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... loads when, in addition, sound, dense, good-quality metal of satisfactorily fine grain size has been produced throughout. Metal that is rolled, forged, or extruded develops and retains a fiberlike grain structure that is aligned in the principal direction of working. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... also discusses the mechanisms used for strengthening aluminum alloys, including solid-solution hardening, grain-size strengthening, work or strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. The process of precipitation hardening involves solution heat treatment, quenching, and subsequent aging of the as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the ferromagnetic properties of soft magnetic materials, explaining the effects of impurities, alloying elements, heat treatment, grain size, and grain orientation on soft magnetic materials. It describes the types of soft magnetic materials, which include high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... fraction, number per unit area, intersections and intercepts per unit length, grain size, and inclusion content. quantitative metallography quantitative microstructural measurement grain size Many tasks performed by metallographers are done simply by visual examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Heat treatment of depleted uranium (DU) alloys with 4.0 wt% or more molybdenum or equivalent is similar to that of dilute alloys. This article discusses the metallurgical characteristics and processing considerations of DU and its alloys, and describes the control of grain size and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Magnesium alloys are used predominantly for high-pressure die-cast applications in which the use of a deliberate heat treatment is uncommon. This article provides information on the heat treatment designations for magnesium alloys. It describes the effects of grain size on magnesium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... structural materials, namely, solid-solution strengthening, age/precipitation hardening, dispersion strengthening, grain size reduction, strengthening from cold work, and strengthening from interfaces. It explains the application of predictive models in the atomistic modeling of dislocation structures and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspect magnetic materials for defects such as cracks, voids, and inclusions and to assess other material properties, such as grain size, texture, and hardness. This article discusses the principles of such defect detection, providing details on the origin, generation, and assessment of leakage field data...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... heating temperature, deformation rate, and forging schedule, can however lead to nonuniform grain size, cracking, and even incipient melting. With four dies of the radial forge, the shape (roundness or squareness) and final size of the forged product can be controlled very closely. Although cold work is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the hole from the front (entry) surface in a predictable manner based on transducer near- and far-field effects, depending on the test frequency and search-unit size, as long as the grain size of the material is not large. Where grain size is large, this normal variation can be altered. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-phase alloys (typical grain size ∼6 to 15 μm), and can be as low as 0.4 to 0.6 for very fine-grain (and subgrain-containing) alloys with a large amount of dispersoid particles (grain size ∼0.5 to 4 μm), with a bell-shaped distribution of m as a function of strain rate ( Ref 48 , 49 ). The existing...