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grain refinement

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses selected highlights of thermodynamic relationships during solidification and nucleation kinetics behavior in connection with the basis of nucleation treatments, such as grain refinement and inoculation, to provide a summary of nucleation phenomena during casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... castings (alloys with 12% Si or less) is, on the other hand, accomplished by chemically inhibiting the usual nucleation of eutectic silicon, causing eutectic aluminum grains to nucleate first and forcing silicon to then grow between those aluminum grains, thus acquiring a fibrous, broomlike morphology...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., deoxidation, grain refining, and filtration. The article provides a discussion on these melt treatments for group I to III alloys. It describes the three categories of furnaces for melting copper casting alloys: crucible furnaces, open-flame furnaces, and induction furnaces. The article explains the important...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... stoichiometry of intermetallic phases, and control of solidification conditions. The article discusses the modification and grain refinement of aluminum-silicon alloys by the use of modifiers and refiners to influence eutectic and hypereutectic structures in aluminum-silicon alloys. It provides information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on forging methods, melting procedures, forging equipment, forging practices, grain refinement, and critical factors considered in forging process. It describes the different types of solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... most, equal to 0.5. A typical example for isothermal grain growth in zone-refined iron is shown in Fig. 23 . The deviation from a straight-line relationship for very short annealing times at low temperatures is due to recrystallization, and that for long annealing times at high temperatures is due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Control of grain flow is one of the major advantages of shaping metal parts by rolling, forging, or extrusion. This article shows the effects of anisotropy on mechanical properties. Cylindrical forgings commonly have a straight parting line located in a diametral plane. The alternate...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fraction, grain structure (two-phase grain structures, and nonequiaxed grain structures), grain size, and inclusion content. It also reviews simple relationships between number of grains per unit area, number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain, and number of interceptions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... composition but also through more precise control of microstructure. The absence of grain boundaries in single-crystal alloys permits elements such as carbon, zirconium, and boron to be deleted from the composition. The resulting increase in melting point in turn provides improved flexibility in alloy...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ladles Properties are derived from the major refractory constituents, additives, microstructure, grain size, and fabrication process (bricks or castable). Changing these factors imparts specific characteristics that include melting temperature, creep resistance, oxidation resistance, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in fine-grain metals has encompassed many ideas, such as the diffusional creep, dislocation creep with diffusional accommodation at grain boundaries, and concepts of grain-mantle deformation. The article concludes with information on the kinetics of superplastic deformation processes, including low...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and rotor steels have higher quality requirements and tighter composition control than plain carbon or ordinary low-alloy steels. The production of special-quality steels requires vacuum-based induction or electric remelting and refining capabilities. The article explores the types and characteristics...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Vacuum arc melting Electron beam melting Advantages Limitations Advantages Limitations Advantages Limitations Tungsten, molybdenum Small grain size; most often used Refining limited; small batches; high energy consumption Moderate grain size; acceptable workability; large ingots; low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... scale by modeling. At the crystal scale, issues often center around the influence of the polycrystalline microstructure on a material behavior. Simulations at this scale can combine morphological (size and shape) and topological (grain or phase connectivity) features with the anisotropy of both the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the directed dendrites can come to a stop. The ingot core then solidifies nondirectionally, for example, in equiaxed grains, leading to segregation and microshrinkage. Even in the case of directional solidification, microsegregation increases with dendrite arm spacing. A solidification structure with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... usually preferred to refine the final microstructure, enhancing strength and toughness. Due to grain growth or grain coarsening, the austenite grain size is expected to increase with time or temperature, as shown for pure iron in Fig. 12 . In alloys, the austenite grain-coarsening behavior may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... size D 0 and the steady-state grain size D ¯ . If DDRX leads to grain refinement (more precisely, if D 0 ≥ 2 D ¯ ), the initial microstructure contains few nucleation sites (on the grain boundaries). The recrystallization process is associated with necklace formation until...