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grain counts

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and tin, which are present in the microstructure of zinc alloys. The article also provides information on microexamination that helps to determine the dendrite arm spacing, as well as the grain size, grain boundaries, and grain counts. aluminum cadmium copper dendrite arm spacing etching grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... International grain size is 5.64. Fig. 14 100× micrograph of 304 stainless steel etched electrolytically with 60% HNO 3 (0.6 V direct current, 120 s, platinum cathode) to suppress etching of the twin boundaries. The three circles have a total circumference of 500 mm (20 in.). A count of the grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the calculation of the average area of particles in a two-phase microstructure. Counting of the number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain features, P L , or the number of interceptions of particles or grains by a line of known length, N L , provides two very useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... are also explained, including mean stress effects, sequences of stress/strain amplitude or stress state, nonproportional loading and cycle counting, and HCF fatigue limits. In addition, the article covers the formation and propagation of cracks on the order of several grain sizes in diameter in initially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the intersection count I L systematically varies with the angular orientation of the test lines. Figure 7 shows an anisotropic microstructure depicting grain boundaries in a cold-rolled extra-low-carbon steel specimen. Clearly, in such a microstructure, on the average, a horizontal test line is expected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... an image or a collection of images. Image processing also can be called digital imaging, as is done within this Volume. The aim of image processing is to highlight the features under investigation (for example, grain boundaries) or to suppress the unwanted features (scratches, noise, etc.). The process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... analyzers metallography microscopy microstructure quantitative determination sample preparation Overview Introduction Types of Image Analyzers Image Analyzer Components Possible Errors Applications References References 1. “Determining Average Grain Size,” E 112, Annual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... three views. Grain size is characterized by placing a line of known length (or preferably a circle of known circumference) on the magnified image of the microstructure and counting the number of intersections between the line and grain boundaries in the microstructure. The number of grain boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...%. (e) Silver, 10 wt%. (f) Tin, 84 wt%. (g) Gold, 20 wt%. (h) Lead, 10 wt% Fig. 18 Photographs of a ceramic nuclear waste form simulant. (a) SEM image shows the fine-grained layered fabric of the material, the poikiloblastic grains of the hollandite, and the location of rutile (darkest areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 0.44 °C/s, or 0.8 °F/s). Source: Ref 14 . (b) Effect of copper, nickel, and section size The high nodule count typical for TWDI significantly affects the microstructure, as reported in Ref 27 for ferrite grain size, pearlite fineness, and morphology, as well as number of ausferrite plates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Quantitative image analysis Field measurements (stereology) Object measurements (feature measurement) Area fraction Area Area percent Length ASTM E 112 grain size Width Count Aspect ratio Perimeter Feret measurements Mean intercept distance Perimeter Mean particle surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... preferred crystallographic orientations by analysis of orientations of individual grains Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm Backscattered electron imaging of atomic number contrast: ∼1 μm X-ray characterization of elemental chemistry: ∼2 μm using typical beam voltages...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the baseline length for the fatigue crack propagation fracture profile of a IN-718 nickel-base alloy having a coarse grain structure (grain size, 23 μm). Observe that average asperity height reaches a saturation value for baseline lengths larger than 500 μm. Source: Ref 6 , 31 Fig. 7 Plot of crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., the primary austenite grains usually nucleate as columnar crystals on mold walls and grow in a direction opposite to the heat flow, promoting a columnar shape ( Fig. 2 ). The dendrites are thin and long in shape and grow from the edge of the casting toward the center ( Ref 5 ). The length and number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... , 1998 , p 209 – 285 10.1016/S0080-8784(08)63057-4 7. Marek J. , Light-Beam-Induced Current Characterization of Grain Boundaries , Journal of Applied Physics , Vol 55 ( No. 2 ), Jan 1984 , p 318 – 326 , 10.1063/1.333047 8. Ross R.J. , Microelectronics Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the latent heat release through nucleation and growth kinetics of eutectic grains ( Ref 2 ) as well as a correction for grain impingement ( Ref 3 ). As mentioned in Ref 4 , Oldfield’s work inspired the subsequent developments in computational modeling of microstructure evolution during solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...” in Powder Metal Technologies and Applications , Volume 7 of ASM Handbook . Optical Microscopy Optical microscopy is used to count and size particles ranging from 100 to 0.5 μm diameter. The resolution of an optical microscope is optimally about 0.25 μm, but diffraction effects at the edges of small...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an inch from one end. The metal pulled resides in the hollow of the cylinder, and the oxides collect at the frit. Hence the frit has to be exposed and metallographically prepared to reveal the oxide count (mm 2 /kg) of the sample. In a study ( Ref 2 ) conducted by DasGupta and Apelian, cleanliness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and width of the operating window is essential to guarantee the industrial applicability of an alloy. The main factor controlling the position of the operating window is the chemical composition of the alloy, although graphite count and shape and austenite grain size also have an influence, as discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... porosity reflect pores found in the material, while Type C porosity quantifies precipitated free carbon. Porosity larger than 25 μm is called macroporosity and is reported as a count/cm 2 in distinct size ranges. Porosity rating chart Table 3 Porosity rating chart Porosity type Size, μm ASTM...