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grain counts

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mm diameter particle of 28.27 mm 2 . The above example illustrates the calculation of the average area of particles in a two-phase microstructure. Counting of the number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain features, P L , or the number of interceptions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-phase microstructure using stereological field measurements rather than individual particle measurements. Counting of the number of intersections of a line of known length with particle boundaries or grain boundaries, P L , or the number of interceptions of particles or grains by a line of known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., zirconium, chromium, vanadium, scandium, nickel, tin, and bismuth. The article discusses the secondary phases in aluminum alloys, namely, nonmetallic inclusions, porosity, primary particles, constituent particles, dispersoids, precipitates, grain and dislocation structure, and crystallographic texture. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Abrasive finishing is a method where a large number of multipoint or random cutting edges are coupled with abrasive grains as a bond or matrix material for effective removal of material at smaller chip sizes. This article provides a broad overview of the various categories of abrasive...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... modification changes porosity formation in a casting. It describes the mechanisms responsible for silicon modification, as well as the modifications and changes in eutectic nucleation and eutectic grain structure. The article reviews the usage of strontium during process steps in foundry practices. The growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... transverse phase domains or grain boundaries, and often are fabricated at very high purity levels. Despite their high purity, the behavior of devices fabricated from these materials can still be quite sensitive to trace elemental constituents. These trace elements may be added intentionally, such as in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... measurements (stereology) Object measurements (feature measurement) Area fraction Area Area percent Length ASTM E 112 grain size Width Count Aspect ratio Perimeter Feret measurements Mean intercept distance Perimeter Mean particle surface area Sphericity Density Convex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cube are gradually drawn into the “tube” that is shown. The extent to which grain orientations are concentrated within as opposed to outside the tube (and therefore the texture “intensity”) increases with the amount of rolling reduction. Following each rolling pass, the material may either...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microstructural phases and compounds by their crystal structures Characterizing preferred crystallographic orientations by analysis of orientations of individual grains Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm Backscattered electron imaging of atomic number contrast: ∼1 μm X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tensile stress of the metal. This form involves grain-boundary penetration by the liquid metal and is less common than type 1. Type 3: Grain-boundary penetration of a solid metal by a specific liquid metal, which causes the solid metal to eventually disintegrate. Stress does not appear to be a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of grain boundaries. On a larger scale, extending over many grain diameters, structure influences more complex phenomena, such as contact at surfaces or optical properties. For coatings, structure-property relationships are further complicated by the fact that coating microstructures are generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phases, while grain boundaries separate crystals of the same phase but with different spatial orientation. The arrangement of atoms in the interface is neither that of the crystal nor of a liquid ( Ref 1 ). Depending on the mutual orientation relationship of the crystals and such parameters as pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., bright crystalline appearance, and a chevron pattern that points to the origin. Examination at high magnification will show cleavage fracture through the grains. The transgranular fracture is related to the nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT) of the alloy, the strain rate, or brittle phases in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... electrolyte, and (c) the surface condition prior to electropolishing (i.e., surface contamination, grain size, and inclusions). MASS FINISHING normally involves loading of components to be finished into a container together with some abrasive medium, water, and compound. Action is applied to the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...; lower number/rating indicates “cleaner” melt DasGupta et al. ( Ref 8 ) examined the correlation of RPT densities to hydrogen content (AlSCAN measurements) of an unmodified and not grain-refined 356 aluminum alloy. The correlation curve, shown in Fig. 18 , was obtained from 100 data points (AlSCAN...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ). The influence of grain structure on microsegregation has been investigated for α-brass. Figure 4 compares for columnar and equiaxed grain structures the zinc distributions measured by point counting on 13 by 13 grids and plotting the points in ascending order of measured zinc content. The columnar...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... successfully cast at metal temperatures only 28 °C (50 °F) over the solidus temperature of the alloy, thus providing a very fine, uniform grain structure. The higher detail, finer grain size, and reduced oxide inclusion count help to enable product designs that will operate at higher temperatures, improving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction (μXRD) is a tool for the examination of materials in situ. Samples are either part of a rock, slab, or polished thin section, or they are encased in a medium, such as epoxy, a capillary, etc. This allows for the sampling of specimens ranging from single crystals to fine-grained mixtures. Unlike...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... out” of the glass binders used to obtain conductor adherence or resistor uniformity. The proper grain size and resulting surface finish are of prime importance in conductor adhesion and solderability, particularly with respect to glass-bonded conductors. Glass-bonded conductors adhere to the substrate...