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germanium specifications

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... aspects and specifications of germanium. The article describes the analytical and test methods of germanium, including gravimetric method, titrimetric method, and spectral method. It provides a short note on toxicology, and concludes with the uses of germanium in different fields. analytical methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Soldering involves heating a joint to a suitable temperature and using a filler metal (solder) that melts below 450 deg C (840 deg F). Beginning with an overview of the specification and standards and applications, this article discusses the principal levels and effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... x-ray absorption fine structure has been observed in simple gaseous molecular systems, such as GeCl 4 ( Ref 11 ) and, more recently, Br 2 ( Ref 12 ). Figure 2 shows the germanium EXAFS above its K-edge in GeCl 4 , taken by using synchrotron radiation. The fine structure arises from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is the detection coefficient, defined as the ratio of observed count rate to the true disintegration rate of the sample. Specific Activity The specific activity of a radioactive isotope is the ratio of its disintegration rate to the total number of radioactive atoms, or to their mass, in the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (TiC/TiCN/TiN) coated carbides Physical vapor deposition TiN (titanium nitride) coated carbides Cermets Ceramics (alumina-based and silicon nitride-based) PCD Polycrystalline CBN These tool materials need to be used with specific work materials. Table 1 gives the cutting speeds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... systems, such as GeCl 4 ( Ref 8 ), and, more recently, Br 2 ( Ref 9 ). Figure 2 shows the germanium EXAFS above its K-edge in GeCl 4 taken using synchrotron radiation. The fine structure arises from backscattering of the germanium K-photoelectron by the four chlorine atoms bonded to germanium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... are known as group frequencies. For example, methylene stretching vibrations always occur from 3000 to 2800 cm −1 , methylene deformations from 1500 to 1300 cm −1 , and methylene rocking motions from 800 to 700 cm −1 . These relatively broad regions can be made more specific if the molecular environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... not by their elemental composition, position on the periodic table, chemical arrangement, processing history, or microstructure, but instead by a specific property: electrical resistance. Semiconductors are materials with an electrical resistance intermediate between metals and insulators ( Ref 1 ). From a functional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... an overview of the specifications, standards, and hazards of indium plating. electrodeposition hazards indium indium alloys indium plating nonaqueous indium plating baths stripping INDIUM is a soft, low-melting-point, silvery white metal with a brilliant metallic luster and a color resembling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to be specialty solders. They possess special properties that make them valuable for specific applications such as those described below. Glass-to-Metal Seals Pure indium, the 52In-48Sn alloy, and the 97In-3Ag alloy will wet glass, quartz, and many ceramics. Therefore, they find use in glass-to-metal seals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... from 1500 to 1300 cm −1 , and methylene rocking motions from 800 to 700 cm −1 . These relatively broad regions can be made more specific if the molecular environment of the CH 2 group is considered in more detail. Similar sets of rules for many other functional groups have been derived empirically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Dubnium Db Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Erbium Er Europium Eu Fermium Fm Fluorine F Francium Fr Gadolinium Gd Gallium Ga Germanium Ge Gold (c) Au Hafnium Hf Hassium Hs Helium He Holmium Ho Hydrogen H Indium In Iodine I Iridium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...” in this article). In destructive (radiochemical) NAA, the detection limits for some elements are below 10 −12 g. The term neutron activation analysis is best reserved for describing a class of related techniques rather than a specific measurement technique. Several abbreviations are used in reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... laser diodes is from InP devices; because InP devices emit light at a longer wavelength than GaAs devices, they are suitable for fiber-optic communications applications. However, InP technology is at an earlier stage of development than GaAs technology; thus, InP devices are more costly. Germanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.../cm 2 . Fig. 1 Temperature distribution after a specific heating time in a thick steel plate heated uniformly on one surface as a function of applied heat intensity. Initial temperature of plate is 25 °C (77 °F), thermal conductivity is 50 W/m · K, specific heat capacity is 475 J/kg · K...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Melting Induction processes are frequently used to melt high-quality ferrous and nonferrous alloys (e.g., aluminum and copper alloys). Advantages specific to induction melting as compared with other melting processes include a natural stirring action (giving a more uniform melt) and long crucible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...), for the ternary gallium-indium-tin alloy, to as high as 425 °C (795 °F), for the germanium-aluminum solder. Metal alloys with melting temperatures that exceed 450 °C (812 °F) are categorized as brazing filler metals. The pasty region can range from only a few degrees to nearly 100 °C (180 °F). Other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... , Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 ). Also see the articles “Thermophysical Properties of Solids,” “Thermophysical Properties of Liquids,” and “Thermophysical Properties for Solidification Models” in this Volume. Measurement Methods Specific Heat, Enthalpy, and Transition Temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., namely, modulus-density, strength-density, fracture toughness-density, modulus-strength, specific stiffness-specific strength, fracture toughness-modulus, fracture toughness-strength, loss coefficient-modulus, thermal conductivity-thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion-thermal conductivity, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... first enabled activation of only a specific area/volume of the component. Many early publications about the use of radionuclide techniques can be found in proceedings ( Ref 3 , 4 ), SAE papers ( Ref 5 ), and in languages other than English ( Ref 6 ). However, good overviews of the tribological...