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geometric irregularities

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. It discusses eutectic morphologies in terms of lamellar and fibrous eutectics, regular and irregular eutectics, and the interpretation of eutectic microstructures. The article examines the solidification of a binary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative geometrical methods for characterizing nonplanar fracture surfaces. Prominent techniques for studying fracture surfaces are based on the projected images, stereoscopic viewing, and sectioning. The article provides information on various roughness and materials-related parameters for profiles and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract The potential for introducing defects during processing becomes greater as the relative density of pressed and sintered powder metallurgy (PM) parts increases and more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. This article discusses the potential defects in pressed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... contraction, solid-solid contraction, and liquid-solid contraction. The article discusses the factors influencing the solidification sequence of simple shapes, such as T-sections, X-sections, and L-sections. It also provides an overview of geometric factors that influence heat transfer and transport phenomena...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that must be defined and controlled. The first concerns the geometric irregularities of the surface, and the second concerns the metallurgical alterations of the surface and the surface layer. This second aspect has been termed surface integrity. Both surface finish and surface integrity must be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... geometrically precise components or surfaces of controlled texture or surface finish. ELECTROPOLISHING is a nonabrasive electrochemical process for removing metal. Etching, deburring, smoothing, coloring, and machining are typical electropolishing processes. The removal of metal is done anodically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... with finite-element models) is highlighted with respect to recrystallization simulations and, in particular, multiphenomena models. The evolution of the field from regular to irregular CA and future outlooks are also addressed. Cellular automata operate at mesoscopic length scales...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., pitting, crevice, intergranular, galvanic, erosion, and microbe-induced corrosion. Note that some of these corrosion mechanisms are facilitated by geometric considerations, while others are primarily material incompatibilities that result in galvanic coupling. NOTE: Preserve some corrosion product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... scanning due to irregular contact resistance with surface High sensitivity to small resistance change. Suitable for online monitoring Mostly metals but limited use for concretes and composites Barkhausen noise Changes in magnetic flux from stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... constantly being developed to achieve extremely close geometric tolerances or to improve surface finish. The objective of all high-precision processes is to achieve geometrically precise components or surfaces of controlled texture or surface finish ( Fig. 11 ). Table 5 compares the processes described in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... be used to efficiently and accurately analyze planar and axisymmetric forming problems involving both material and geometric nonlinearities, along with complicated interface conditions. Like FEM, the use of BEM in the modeling of metal-forming operations may require consideration of elastic-plastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... vacuum-tube image sensors because of the reliability of their solid-state technology, their operation at low voltage and low power dissipation, extensive dynamic range, visible and near-infrared response, and geometric reproducibility of image location. Image enhancement (or visual feedback into robotic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection to proceed along the edge, while keeping the edge effect constant. In addition to the geometric relationship that exists between the inspection coil and the part being inspected, the thickness and shape of the part itself will affect eddy current response. Eddy currents are not uniformly...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the die. The proportion of the heat removed by cooling lines can then be determined. The size of preheating units required can also be found by using this simple method and taking into account the die properties. There are also methods that use purely geometric considerations. In this case, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be immersed in the water bath. Most two- or three-axis mechanical scanning systems allow only planar scanning motions of flat or cylindrical shapes. Multiaxis systems with 5 to 11 degrees of freedom have been developed to handle geometrically complex structures. Robotic manipulators also have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... interface, producing an irregular surface finish. Hence, fusion welding produced a smoother surface than the comparable joint using solid-state bonding. Fig. 16 Surface of the optimized bonding condition for crossed 316LVM stainless steel. (a) Laser welding (fusion). (b) Resistance welding (fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., while in 3-D an additional element must be added, namely, the quadruple junction. A quadruple junction is the geometrical point where four grains meet. In addition, grain boundaries and triple junctions now require a 3-D description; that is, a grain boundary is represented by a surface, and the triple...