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gear tooth failures

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can cause rapid and sometimes catastrophic failures ( Ref 2 ). This can occur in metal forming, piston rings, skirts and cylinders, chains, cams and follower bearings, and gears ( Ref 26 ). The normal break-in is a form of mild adhesive wear. Scuffing usually refers to moderate adhesive wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., sulfide stress-corrosion failure, stress-corrosion cracking, and hitch post shaft failure of these steels. The components considered in the article include tail-rotor drive-pinion shafts, pinion gears, outboard-motor crankshafts, bull gears, diesel engine bearing cap bolts, splined shafts, aircraft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nonlinearity in the correlation. Examples are presented in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 Example of correlation between nital etch (top row) and magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) signal amplitude (bottom row) on three gear teeth. Measurements were performed on each tooth with MBN before verifying destructively with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... a tooth of the induction-hardened AISI 1053 steel left-side bull gear of a tractor. Hardness of the tooth was 57 HRC at the tip and 50 HRC at a depth of 13.3 mm (0.52 in.). Hardness in the root fillet was approximately 56 HRC near the surface and 50 HRC at a depth of 11.5 mm (0.45 in.). The arrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... flame-hardened crane gear of AISI 1045 steel in which fatigue cracks formed at the roots of many teeth after one year of service. The cracks have been sharply delineated by etching. Note that hardening did not extend even to the root fillet of any tooth. Figure 212 is a polished and etched cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... common location for effective case depth on small gears is at the center of the gear thickness, at midheight of the tooth. The new technician may find it difficult to find terms to describe the position easily, but it is good practice to develop an analytical mind. In some cases, a sketch in the lab...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... representative sections excised from the gear were submitted for metallurgical analysis. The cracks were primarily located on the gear faces and were not associated with traditional regions of high service stresses, such as the tooth roots. Some portions of the gear face exhibited light discoloration, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Distortion often is observed in the analysis of other types of failures, and consideration of the distortion can be an important part of the analysis. This article first considers that true distortion occurs when it was unexpected and in which the distortion is associated with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Ref 51 ). Fig. 17 Stress versus number of cycles to failure curves for as-hardened (gear A) and as-hardened plus double-shot-peened (gear B) gears. Source: Ref 51 Plastic strain, which is generally more significant when operating in cyclic fatigue, has a predominant influence in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... acting as mechanical fuses. Stress directors in helicopter gearing are also designed so that if gear tooth fracture occurs, only half the tooth breaks off. This leaves the other half of the gear tooth to carry the load, simultaneously creating sufficient vibration to warn the pilot of imminent failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... FATIGUE (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact (e.g., rolling-element bearings, railway tracks, gears). It is characterized by crack propagation caused by the near-surface alternating shear stress field, caused by rolling or rolling-sliding contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... carburized surface layer of a tooth in gears manufactured from Deutsche Industrie-Normen (DIN) 17CrNiMo6 steel (0.18 C, 0.38 Mn, 0.008 P, 0.020 S, 0.20 Si, 1.73 Cr, 1.58 Ni, and 0.25 Mo). Fig. 42 (a) Crack running through the carburized surface layer on the flank of a gear tooth. (b) Region of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiation. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 7 Unetched metallographic cross section through gear tooth showing subsurface fatigue crack formed by rolling contact. Original magnification: 132×. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 8 Unetched metallographic cross section through hardened steel roller test specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discern ( Fig. 29 ). Fig. 29 (a) Phosphor bronze worm gear with worn teeth. (b) Original shape of tooth. Ferric chloride etch. (c) Worn tooth with cold work. Ferric chloride etch. (d) Alloy steel gear with worn teeth. Original magnification: 5×. (e) Section through worn tooth with burrs. Structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... on a gear tooth increases as the 4.3 power of the taper. The solution to the gear-design problem is to provide greater symmetry ( Fig. 33 ). If this is not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... some cases, however ( Ref 2 ). Examples of modern flame heads are shown in Fig. 6 . Fig. 6 Representative flame head designs. (a) Gear tooth-hardening flame head. (b) Sheave-hardening flame head. Source: Ref 3 The success of many flame-hardening applications depends...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.9781627081887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as large as the entire gear. Micro-XRD was well suited for this analysis because the x-ray beam could be collimated to irradiate a single tooth. Two-dimensional diffraction patterns for both samples are shown in Fig. 18 . Fig. 18 Micro x-ray diffraction two-dimensional patterns for (a) good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of simulation to plasticine deformation, and it was shown that the simulation was very accurate in predicting the material flow ( Ref 22 ). Fig. 43 Two-dimensional flownet of a single tooth in a bevel-gear forming process. The top and bottom dies move together. Fig. 44 Two-dimensional...