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gear failure modes

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Spur-gear tooth showing combination failure modes. (a) Tooth-bending impact. (b) Tooth shear. Arrows indicate direction of applied force. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... they think may have caused the failure. (The parts will always exactly describe the physical causes of the failure, but discussions with the operations and maintenance personnel may provide valuable insights into the human and latent causes of the failure.) Gear Failure Modes Figure 18 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... consistent with load pattern rather than being machined from blanks cut from mill-rolled bar. Classification of Gear Failures Systematic analysis of a gear failure begins with classification of the failure by type, or mode. The mode of failure is determined from the appearance of the failed gear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article is concerned with gear tooth failures influenced by friction, lubrication, and wear, and especially those failure modes that occur in wind-turbine components. It provides a detailed discussion on wear (including adhesion, abrasion, polishing, fretting, and electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... that must be considered in conjunction with the teeth. fatigue gear failure modes gear life gear wear impact fracture lubricants pitting failure stress rupture surface durability wear GEARS can fail in many different ways, and except for an increase in noise level and vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Mechanical tests are performed to evaluate the durability of gears under load. Gear tooth failures occur in two distinct regions, namely, the tooth flank and the root fillet. This article describes the common failure modes such as scoring, wear, and pitting, on tooth flanks. Failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... meaning of K ad is the wear volume fraction in the plastic contact zone, and it is strongly affected by the material properties and the geometry of the zone during compression and shearing ( Ref 16 ). Adhesive Wear Failure Modes Besides during dry sliding, adhesive wear occurs in applications...
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 21 Back-to-back fatigue testing of AISI 8620 wrought steel and surface densified gears (alloy DM-222). Failure mode is bending fatigue. Courtesy of PMG More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the frequently encountered causes of induction coil failures and typical failure modes in fabrication of hardening inductors, tooth-by-tooth gear-hardening inductors, clamshell inductors, contactless inductors, split-return inductors, butterfly inductors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... words, specific factors listed in the section “Factors Influencing Contact Fatigue Life” in this article may be more important than others, depending on the specific failure mode(s) expected based on the operating and environmental conditions of a Hertzian contact. Gear Materials A variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the concepts discussed in the articles under the Section “Failure Analysis” in ASM Handbook, Volume 21: Composites. Most of the information in this Section is geared toward organic-matrix composites, although there is some information on failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... area, terminating near the tip and root of the tooth. This pattern helps to improve wear resistance, but the typical failure mode of gears with this type of pattern is bending fatigue cracking. Due to the lack of strength, a crack typically initiates in the tooth root/fillet area. Additionally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...” in this Volume for a discussion of lubricant selection. Gears As previously mentioned, the wear modes experienced by gears usually involve both rolling and slip or sliding. Dudley ( Ref 2 ) has described the wear of gear teeth, noting that the relative amount of sliding increases as the number of teeth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... conditions or operational modes that manifest the anomalous behavior. For example, failures in the landing gear of an airplane that would cause “loss of landing gear extension” will have significantly different effects if the failure occurs on the ground than if it occurs while attempting to land. Likewise...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract A major cause of failure in components subjected to rolling or rolling/sliding contacts is contact fatigue. This article focuses on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performance and failure modes of overlay coatings such as those deposited by physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... so. Many service failures still occur by fatigue, despite the well-defined characterization of fatigue properties in the laboratory. In part, the difficulty is that fatigue behavior is influenced by a great many variables such as the magnitude and frequency of application of the fluctuating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... balls surfaces. It discusses the propagation of fatigue cracks involved in rolling contacts. The characteristics of various types of RCF test machines are summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the various failure modes of silicon nitride in rolling contact. These include the spalling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... location for damage initiation. Fig. 18 Rolling contact fatigue of surface densified gears and wrought steel gears. Courtesy of PMG Fig. 19 Typical pitting on tested gears. Courtesy of PMG As stated above, the second common failure mode of heavily loaded transmission components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract Contact fatigue is a surface-pitting-type failure commonly found in ball or roller bearings. This article discusses the mechanisms of contact fatigue found in gears, cams, valves, rails, and gear couplings. It discusses the statistical analysis of rolling contact bearing-life tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... before yielding. These stresses are graphically illustrated in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Example residual-stress depth distributions for various scenarios involving grinding burn. Courtesy of American Stress Technologies, Inc. Grinding burn results in an area with a number of failure modes...