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gaseous corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article examines the characteristics and behavior of scale produced by various types of oxidation. The basic models, concepts, processes, and open questions for high-temperature gaseous corrosion are presented. The article describes the development of geometrically induced growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article discusses two approaches for determining gaseous corrosion rates, one based on indirect (discontinuous) measurements, the other based on direct (continuous) measurements. It explains how corrosion rate data can be obtained indirectly by measuring scale thickness, scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract When metal is exposed to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperature, corrosion can occur by direct reaction with the gas, without the need for the presence of a liquid electrolyte. This type of corrosion is referred to as high-temperature gaseous corrosion. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the mechanisms of wear and their interactions with gaseous corrosion. The wear mechanisms include abrasive, erosive, fretting, and sliding. The measurement of degradation on combustion walls in coal-fired boilers is discussed. The article concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Metals can react chemically with oxygen when exposed to air. Essential to an understanding of the gaseous corrosion of a metal are the crystal structure and the molar volume of the metal on which the oxide builds, both of which may affect growth stresses in the oxide. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is often difficult because of the range of composition of the corrosive gaseous or molten environments and the variety of materials that may be used. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated, because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given application by more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... rule-of-thumb, is usually correct. The Pilling- Bedworth volume ratios for many common oxides are listed in Table 2 of the article “Thermodynamics of Gaseous Corrosion” in this Volume. Defect Structure of Oxides The basic defect structures of solids were first published by Frenkel (in metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by a group of articles discussing the fundamentals of aqueous corrosion kinetics. The fundamentals of gaseous corrosion are addressed next. The fundamental electrochemical reactions of corrosion and their uses are finally described. corrosion aqueous corrosion corrosion kinetics gaseous corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... view would categorize corrosion as uniform or localized, aqueous or gaseous, wet or dry, and so forth. This Section, “Forms of Corrosion,” contains six subsections. Four of them (“ Uniform Corrosion ,” “ Localized Corrosion ,” “ Metallurgically Influenced Corrosion ,” and “ Microbiologically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In most cases, corrosion resistance at high temperatures does not accompany the good mechanical properties of structural materials; therefore, protective coatings must be applied. Electrochemical principles are insufficient to understand the mechanism of oxidation. For gaseous reactions, a basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article reviews general corrosion of uranium and its alloys under atmospheric and aqueous exposure as well as with gaseous environments. It describes the dependence of uranium and uranium alloy corrosion on microstructure, alloying, solution chemistry, and temperature as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Corrosion 220 High-temperature gaseous corrosion High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion 228 Oxidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on High-Temperature Oxidation) 230 Sulfidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on Sulfidation) 230 Carburization High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Steel storage tanks are the primary means for storing large volumes of liquids and gaseous products. The stored fluid could be water, but it could also be volatile, corrosive, and flammable fluid requiring special precautions for storage as well. Corrosion is generally worst where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... “Molten Salt Corrosion,” “Liquid Metal Corrosion,” and “High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion” in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of ASM Handbook , 2003. Oxidation The reactor (or calciner), where the chemical reaction is taking place in an oxidizing environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article discusses the corrosion of metals and nonmetals by dry chlorine, refrigerated liquid chlorine, dry gaseous chlorine, moist chlorine, selected mixed gases with chlorine, and chlorine-water. It also provides information on the handling of commercial chlorine. dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., the range of the composition of corrosive gaseous or molten environments, and the variety of materials that may be used in a given power system. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given application by more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of nitrided layers. It describes the structural changes on the surface of carbon steels, alloy steels, and austenitic stainless steels. The article explains the effects of the various nitriding processes, namely, gaseous nitriding, plasma nitriding, gaseous nitrocarburizing, and salt bath nitrocarburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... sample types have been implanted while keeping their surface temperatures below 100 °C (212 °F) by using heat sinks and by modifying processing conditions. Gaseous Corrosion Properties Gaseous corrosion or thermal oxidation, in the absence of a liquid phase, is primarily governed by the transport...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 43 Effect of initial tensile stress on time-to-fracture by SCC at room temperature of brass in three corrosive environments. Curve A, partly immersed in concentrated ammonium hydroxide; B, exposed to the vapor of concentrated ammonium hydroxide; C, exposed to a gaseous mixture of ammonia More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... accurate tailoring of the case produced by low-temperature surface hardening. The main obstacle for gaseous processes is the stability of the passive film that provides stainless steel its favorable corrosion properties. Attempts to replace plasma-based low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel...