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gaseous catalysts

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Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract No-bake sand molds are based on the curing of inorganic or organic binders with either gaseous catalysts or liquid catalysts. This article reviews the major aspects of no-bake sand bonding in terms of coremaking, molding methods, and sand processing. It discusses the points...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Yes Yes Yes No No Prime cell components Carbon-base Carbon-base Graphite-base Stainless-base Ceramic Catalyst Platinum Platinum Platinum Nickel Perovskites Product water management Evaporative Evaporative Evaporative Gaseous product Gaseous product Product heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... carbon concentrations Ammonia Vapor Ammonia dissociates in the endothermic reaction: (Eq 23) 2 NH 3 → N 2 + 3 H 2 with the dissociated ammonia containing 75% hydrogen and 25% nitrogen. Dissociation occurs when ammonia vapor is heated and passed over the proper catalyst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-pressure environments and can occur more frequently near the fuel inlet. Carbon formation in the nickel anode and catalyst also remains a concern during fuel cell operation. Gaseous reactions that lead to metal dusting are: (Eq 14) CO + H 2 → C + H 2 O (Eq 15) 2 CO → C + CO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., and carburization and decarburization, for example—are controlled by the ratios of various atmospheric constituents, as shown in Table 3 . Typical physical properties of various gaseous feed stocks at 20 °C (68 °F) and 1 atmosphere Table 1 Typical physical properties of various gaseous feed stocks at 20 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...) concentration profile of carbon and nitrogen in the compound layer of low-alloyed steel after plasma nitriding. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 8 Gas-nitrided needle beds in large-diameter, fine-gage circular knitting machines Fig. 9 Effect of oxygen on the reaction rate in gaseous nitriding. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... with the preparation conditions. This approach was later expanded to the Raman analysis of glasses by using the Raman microprobe (MOLE) to characterize deposits and gaseous contents of bubbles in the glass ( Ref 17 ). The MOLE technique enabled sampling of only the bubbles in the glass to the exclusion of the bulk...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Systems Polymers Graphites The study of metal oxide and supported metal oxide catalysts best illustrates application of Raman spectroscopy to analysis of the surface structure of materials. An example of the Raman analysis of metal oxide surface structure is a study on the effect of specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... demands on base stock and additives in modern powertrains is significant. Higher engine operating temperatures require the use of less volatile, more thermally stable products. Modern catalyst and diagnostic systems require nonpoisoning chemistries containing less sulfur, phosphorus, and metallic-based...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... chemolysis or solvolysis): The scrap or waste plastic is decomposed by chemical means at increased temperatures and pressures, usually in the presence of a catalyst. An example is the hydrolysis or decomposition of PET by water (as steam) into the starting monomers, ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... oxides with ratios of more than 1 are not protective. Additional information about the PB ratio is available in the article “Gaseous Corrosion Mechanisms” in ASM Handbook , Volume 13A, 2003. Microribbons or Microcracks Chromium electrodeposits are not homogenous, because they contain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and formed around a pattern or placed in a core box. The resin may be cured by heat, or it may be cured by the setting of the resin. To accelerate the curing of the resin, catalysts may be added, either in solid, liquid, or gaseous form. No-Bake Processes The term “no-bake” generally refers to all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... an iron catalyst to produce NH 3 that is condensed and separated from the gas stream. Ammonia that leaks into cooling towers can be converted to HNO 3 by nitrifying bacteria and pose a corrosion threat throughout the plant. Since much of the NH 3 production process operates at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Atmospheres Most heat treating atmospheres are gaseous mixtures containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and water vapor (see the article “Furnace Atmospheres for Heat Treating” in this Volume for more details). The relative amounts of these gases depend on the type...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Base. Formed by partial reaction of a mixture of fuel gas and air in an externally heated catalyst-filled chamber Class 400—Charcoal Base. Formed by passing air through a bed of incandescent charcoal Class 500—Exothermic-Endothermic Base. Formed by complete combustion of a mixture of fuel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... In gas carburizing, commercially the most important variant of carburizing, the source of carbon is a carbon-rich furnace atmosphere produced either from gaseous hydrocarbons—for example, methane (CH 4 ), propane (C 3 H 3 ), and butane (C 4 H 10 )—or from vaporized hydrocarbon liquids. Carbon Sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., which absorb acid catalyst. The acid demand test is able to measure these non-water-soluble components in contrast to a pH test. Acid demand value (ADV) is important for the acid-catalyzed no-bake systems. Aggregates with high ADV and basic aggregates, such as olivine, are not suitable for these systems...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Schematic diagrams of the fluxes of the major diffusing gaseous species in aluminizing packs activated with (a) NH 4 X ( X = Cl, Br, or I), (b) NH 4 F, and (c) NaCl. Source: Ref 20 , 21 Diffusion of the gaseous halides takes place across an aluminum-depleted zone which forms as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... be doped as both p- and n-type. It is most likely to be boron-rich when obtained from conventional processes. A black form is also commercially available. Cubic boron nitride can include solvent/catalyst materials and HBN from the synthesis process. An extremely tough microcrystalline form is also...