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gas evaporation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... advantages, limitations, and applications of vacuum deposition processes. Finally, it provides information on the gas evaporation process, its processing chamber, and related systems. evaporation process equipment gas evaporation process control process monitoring reactive evaporation thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the pool that are due to evaporation of metal ions and radiation. Figure 3 shows that the energy distribution for this particular case approaches a Gaussian distribution (that is, normal distribution curve). High helium contents in the shielding gas have produced data that are typically better fit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... (NH 3 + dNH 3 /N 2 ) Hold for 2nd nitriding stage (NH 3 + dNH 3 /N 2 ) Cool with process gas (Optional, to obtain lower porosity) Cool with N 2 purge until furnace is fully purged with nitrogen X Unload X At a first temperature hold, contaminants will be evaporated, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The corrosion issues in the compressor, combustor and turbine sections of industrial gas turbines used in steam production generally depend on the quality of the fuel, air, and water used in the engine than on the specific industrial application. This article focuses on the forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract The gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process is performed using a welding arc between a nonconsumable tungsten-base electrode and the workpieces to be joined. The arc discharge requires a flow of electrons from the cathode through the arc column to the anode. This article discusses two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the sample ruptures. A set of stable operating conditions can be defined for FIM ( Fig. 9 ). Stable images are obtained when the evaporation field of the sample material, F E , is significantly above the ionization field of the image gas, F I , and the stress required to produce mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... resins, thermoplastic resins, and cross-linked thermosetting resins. The autooxidative cross-linked resins include alkyd resins and epoxy esters. The article examines the two types of coatings based on thermoplastic resins: those deposited by evaporation of a solvent, commonly called lacquers, and those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... nucleating system as a homogeneous phase using the classical nucleation theory, along with heterophase fluctuations that led to the formation of precipitates. It discusses the gas cluster dynamics using the kinetic approach to describe nucleation. The article presents key parameters, such as cluster...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... coatings for aircraft turbines, marine turbines, and industrial turbines. physical vapor deposition chemical vapor deposition sputtering evaporation ion plating graphite aluminum coating steel alloy coating gas turbines aircraft turbines marine turbines industrial turbines VAPOR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract High-temperature exposure of materials occurs in many applications such as power plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), land-based gas turbine and diesel engines, gas turbine engines for aircraft, marine gas turbine engines for shipboard use, waste incineration, high-temperature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pressures the mean free path of a gas atom, that is, the average distance the atom travels before colliding with another atom, is greater than the chamber dimensions. An atom evaporating from a source travels in a straight line; thus the process is line-of-sight limited, and coating around corners or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... precursors, namely, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and evaporative or solvent carriers. It provides a description of the advantages and limitations of various methods involved in chemical vapor infiltration. The article concludes with a discussion on the matrix contribution to composite properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (produced by the electron-beam evaporator shown in Fig. 1a ) or 1 to 10 eV (produced by the sputter source shown in Fig. 1b ). The vapor atoms have a velocity vector directed toward the substrate and are confined to the region between the vapor source and the substrate. The gas and the vapor impinge on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... temperature measurement, unvented cavities, loose powder, and direct contact of metals in the high-temperature vacuum. The article provides a short discussion on sintering and evaporation of metals in vacuum furnaces. additive manufacturing aging sintering solid-solution annealing solution treating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., evaporation, and ion plating surface modification treatments. The thermochemical conversion surface treatments include nitriding, carburizing, boriding, and solid lubrication. friction wear titanium alloys physical vapor deposition thermochemical conversion treatments ion implantation sputtering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The fluidized bed provides a means for exchanging heat between a metal part, the solid particles, and the fluidizing gas and which is viable for quenching. This article briefly considers the design aspects of the gas distributor, plenum, container, immersed cooling tubes and surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... factors that affect the weldability of copper alloys, including thermal conductivity of the alloy being welded, shielding gas, type of current used during welding, joint design, welding position, and surface condition. The article provides information on arc welding processes such as gas-metal arc welding...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., because it contains atoms and ions of the evaporated material of electrodes along with the gas particles. Therefore, an adequate mathematical model of the welding arc must allow for the multicomponent nature of the arc plasma ( Ref 44 , 45 ). Such a model must have another important characteristic: self...