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gamma radiography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... estimation in the laboratory Gamma radiography Laboratory and in-field testing Scanning electron microscope Basic understanding of the crack initiation and growth mechanisms Transmission electron microscope Basic understanding of the crack initiation and growth mechanisms Scanning tunneling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the sources of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and increasing the density of the image. In gamma radiography, the energy is fixed by the type of isotope, whereas in x-radiography, it can be varied with the tube voltage. The radiation from Iridium 192 has an x-ray equivalent in the 500 kV to 1 MeV range and, therefore, image quality is not as good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., and gamma-ray density determination. The article also discusses the methods for automated nondestructive testing of pressed and sintered PM parts: acoustic methods-resonance testing, eddy current testing, magnetic bridge comparator testing, ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, gamma-ray density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of the radiation and the greater the thickness of component that can be tested). Gamma radiography is carried out using radioactive isotope sources (e.g., cobalt-60, iridium-192, and selenium), although, due to the hard radiation characteristics, its sensitivity is generally less than that achievable by x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discussed in the article “Principles of Radiography” in this Volume, but using the DDA as the detector medium. Digital radiography provides benefits that are making it a technique of choice for x-ray inspection for both x-rays and gamma rays. Digital radiography systems are being used for in-service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Radiography is one of the most widely used volumetric NDE methods. This method is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Radiography is one of the most widely used volumetric NDE methods. This method is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... material, typically tungsten. Radiation from most x-ray tubes is limited to less than 500 keV, but devices such as betatrons or linear accelerators can approach 30 MeV. These devices are rare because they are expensive and relatively large. Radioactive sources produce gamma rays by fission of unstable...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... because the greater the length integrated, the more inhomogeneities in the damage state can be averaged out. Radiography is an NDT technique that can provide extensive and detailed information on the state of damage. A variety of penetrating particles and rays, including neutron, gamma, and x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... represents the single largest use of cobalt. In the nickel-base superalloys, cobalt (which is present typically in the range 10 to 15 wt%) provides solid-solution strengthening and decreases the solubility of aluminum and titanium, thereby increasing the volume fraction of gamma prime (γ′) precipitate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... exposure, result at the detector. Through-transmission radiography can only be performed when both sides of the pipe are accessible, and large-diameter pipes require the use of gamma radiation and high-energy x-rays ( Ref 15 ). Gamma radiation from a 192 Ir source is approximately equivalent to x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and reliability in terms of exponential distribution, Weibull distribution, and gamma distribution. It concludes with information on the effects of interaction on failure probability. friction wear tribological testing tribographs transition diagrams tribomaps reliability Weibull distribution gamma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... techniques (spectroscopy, radiography, etc.), have experienced remarkable advances. In terms of neutron production, the intrinsic power limitations of reactor sources, arising from the technical challenge of cooling a high-power density source, were finally overcome when neutron beams were produced via...