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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... between wear and reliability in terms of exponential distribution, Weibull distribution, and gamma distribution. It concludes with information on the effects of interaction on failure probability. friction wear tribological testing tribographs transition diagrams tribomaps reliability Weibull...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract Superalloys are predominantly nickel-base alloys that are strengthened by solid-solution elements including molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and by precipitation of a Ni 3 (Al, Ti) type compound designated as gamma prime and/or a metastable Ni 3 Nb precipitate designated as gamma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of a shell mold for an air-cooled turbine blade casting. Source: Ref 5 Abstract Abstract The initial cast superalloy developments in the United States centered on cobalt-base materials. Nickel-base and nickel-iron-base superalloys owe their high-temperature strength potential to their gamma prime...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the physical metallurgy and weldability of four families of titanium-base alloys, namely, near-alpha alloy, alpha-beta alloy, near-beta, or metastable-beta alloy, and titanium based intermetallics that include alpha-2, gamma, and orthorhombic systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... 1 Phases in nickel alloys Phase name Chemical composition Description Gamma (γ) matrix Nickel-base solid solution This face-centered cubic (fcc) nonmagnetic phase is the matrix in all nickel-base alloys and usually contains a high percentage of solid-solution elements, such as cobalt...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are exposed to elevated temperatures for long times. Typical metallurgical instabilities for turbine blades include carbide coarsening, gamma-prime formation, and hot corrosion. For steel alloys used for tubes and piping, carbide spheroidization and coalescence, sigma-phase formation, sensitization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the sources of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... spectroscopy PGAA prompt gamma-ray activation analysis PIXE particle-induced x-ray emission RBS Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RDF radial distribution function (analysis) RHEED reflection high-energy electron diffraction SAD selected-area diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... focuses on the widely used form known as carbon black (CB) and shows how to deal with friction and wear of polymers and composites when gamma irradiation is involved. It also discusses the role of graphite in composite materials, which is widely used as a dry lubricant. The article examines the tribology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processing of all nickel-base alloys occurs below the solidus temperature and may occur above or below the solvus temperature of various precipitate phases for each respective alloy. Thermomechanical processing steps that occur below solvus temperatures are often designed to maintain fine gamma grain sizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... a specific polymer family. The molecular weight distribution of thermoplastics can be more fully evaluated using gel permeation chromatography. The molecular weight is described in terms of statistical averages: M n = number average, M w = weight average, and M z = z -average. A typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... positron has a higher probability of annihilating with a lower energy conduction electron. This trend is reflected as a narrowing of the energy distribution about the value of 511 keV. If the electron-positron center of the mass was stationary, then 511 keV would be the gamma ray energy. Thus, the Doppler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... tomography, and gamma-ray density determination. The article also discusses the methods for automated nondestructive testing of pressed and sintered PM parts: acoustic methods-resonance testing, eddy current testing, magnetic bridge comparator testing, ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, gamma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the gamma prime phase, gamma double prime phase, eta phase, laves phase, sigma phase, mu phase, and chi phase in wrought heat-resistant alloys. cobalt-base heat-resistant alloys ferrite grinding heat-resistant alloys iron-base heat-resistant alloys macroetching magnetic etching metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... times. Mix 1 cm 3 Fe 3 O 4 with 30 mL of a 0.3% soap solution. Add 1 drop of this suspension to the sample surface and cover with a cover glass for uniform distribution. Examine under the microscope with bright-field or dark-field illumination. The Fe 3 O 4 particles will decorate the domain walls...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is the amorphous structure in the as-plated condition and the ability to heat treat the deposit by precipitation hardening to produce a crystalline structure. There are three nonequilibrium phases for the as-plated electroless nickel deposit: beta, beta + gamma, and gamma. The beta phase is present up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and processing OLEX2 44 http://www.olexsys.org/ Single-crystal refinement PDFgetN 70 http://pdfgetn.sourceforge.net/ Pair distribution function extraction from neutron data PDFgui 71 https://www.diffpy.org/products/pdfgui.html Pair distribution function analysis MAUD 72 http...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... micrographs, were evenly distributed throughout the samples. Fig. 25 Light micrographs of as-cast Ti-Al-B alloys. Alloys in (a) to (c) are in ingot form and that in (d) is in button form. (a) Grain-refined Ti-44Al-8Nb-1B. (b) Ti-46Al-8Nb-1B. (c) Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B. (d) Ti-50Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B. (b) to (d...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...-Cu), Inconel (Ni-Cr-Mo), Hastelloy (Ni-Mo-Cr), and Incoloy (Ni-Fe-Cr) families of alloys. The heat treatment processes for gamma prime nickel alloys, gamma prime nickel-iron superalloys, and gamma double-prime nickel-iron superalloys are also included. The article also provides information on age...