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galvanically coupled differential flow cell

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... galvanically coupled differential flow cell, galvanically coupled crevice cell, coupled multielectrode sensor, and electrochemical biofilm activity sensor. real-time monitoring localized corrosion electrochemical noise nonelectrochemical method galvanically coupled differential flow cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... changes in kinetics that occur with differentially small potential changes around the equilibrium electrode potentials of two reversible electrodes, Cu and Ag, are examined. In doing this, it should be clear that while differences in the kinetics of the spontaneous galvanic cell and the electrolytic cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... form and rate lead corrosion will have. Figure 1 illustrates two typical examples of contact between lead and other metals. In the presence of an electrolyte, such a dissimilar-metal couple forms a galvanic cell in which the more anodic metal is corroded. A difference in potential sufficient to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... consideration of the many factors that influence corrosion including stress, velocity, galvanic coupling, concentration cells, initial surface conditions, and contamination of the surrounding medium. Over the years, experience has been the best criterion for selecting the most suitable alloy for a given...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... voltage ( E ). The summary equation V  cell  = Δ E e − | η cathode | − | η anode | − i R where Δ E e = E cathode − E anode , i is the current flowing through the cell, and R is the total cell resistance including electronic, ionic, and contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... 2 Differential corrosion cell created by differences in soils. Arrows indicate the direction of ionic and electronic current flow. Galvanic corrosion is another example of a differential corrosion cell. In the case of galvanic corrosion, the potential difference is created by the presence of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are in direct contact in a structure. This metal coupling allows the formation of a galvanic corrosion cell having different electromotive force (voltage), depending on the potential values of the metals in contact ( Table 1 ) ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Schematic presentation of corrosion reaction in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... electroactive minerals and balls. Sulfide minerals with high open circuit potentials become cathodes, while carbon steel balls become anodes. Corrosive wear by this galvanic interaction overshadows the corrosive wear by the differential abrasion cell. Fig. 2 Corrosion model for grinding balls in ore...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...: cylindrical or rectangular. Finite-difference mesh typically represents a rectangular grid (orthogonal mesh) consisting of numerous increments, nodes, and cells. Depending on a particular FDM approach, nodes can be placed at the cell element corners or in the cell element center. The choice of positioning...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ). Copper-base alloys can suffer from a type of crevice corrosion known as metal-ion concentration-cell corrosion. Although there remains some controversy regarding the mechanism, it can be said that crevice-related attack for copper alloys is distinctly different from that for stainless steels. In the case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is now connected to a second electrode whose interfacial properties and global electrode potential do not change on their own at the same instant in time and by the same degree as on the first electrode, then a galvanic cell is momentarily created that induces a further difference in anodic and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...), area ratio of the anode and cathode, surface conditions of the coupled metals, and coolant flow. Galvanic potential is related to the magnitude of the current produced by coupling dissimilar materials exposed to a common electrolyte. The potential depends on the metals that are coupled and on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists of an anode (which liberates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes typically by metal dissolution and/or metal oxide formation) and a cathode (which gains electrons and typically liberates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... corrosion cell or just dissolve and leave a pitlike hole. On the cooling water side, crevice corrosion occurs where surfaces are in close proximity and are not boldly exposed to the water environment, such as at a poorly formed tube-to-tubesheet joint. Imperfect construction methods that result in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... solubility and acidic nature of magnesium chloride that accumulates at local anodic sites. The high conductivity of the chloride electrolyte also promotes the flow of corrosion current. If an adverse galvanic couple is introduced (by attaching a steel bolt to the magnesium, for example) and if the junction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in several ammonia- based slurries ( Ref 10 ). Once polishing began, the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased, providing the cathodic half-cell reaction for copper dissolution. After the initial drop, the potential rose steadily in the NH 4 OH and the NH 4 NO 3 slurries during the polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... with other metals, a galvanic corrosion cell may be created. If there is electrical contact and an electrolyte, there will be a driving force for corrosion of one of the metals. The driving force is proportional to the difference in the E corr values of the metals, and the metal with the more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... forms of localized corrosion by specific environments. For example, carbon or alloy steel pipelines will pit in aggressive soils because of local concentrations of corrosive compounds, differential aeration cells, corrosive bacteria, stray direct currents, or other conditions. These pipelines generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... galvanic cells with most other metals, protecting them by corroding sacrificially. Only magnesium and zinc are more anodic. Sacrificial corrosion of aluminum or cadmium is slight when these two metals are coupled in a galvanic cell, because of the small difference in electrode potential between them...