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galvanically coupled crevice cell

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... galvanically coupled differential flow cell, galvanically coupled crevice cell, coupled multielectrode sensor, and electrochemical biofilm activity sensor. real-time monitoring localized corrosion electrochemical noise nonelectrochemical method galvanically coupled differential flow cell...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ). Copper-base alloys can suffer from a type of crevice corrosion known as metal-ion concentration-cell corrosion. Although there remains some controversy regarding the mechanism, it can be said that crevice-related attack for copper alloys is distinctly different from that for stainless steels. In the case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... possible to test manufactured components or assemblies and assess their resistance to crevice corrosion. These may comprise nonmetal-to-metal or metal-to-metal joints. In the latter case, like-metal or dissimilar- metal couples may be involved. Testing of flanges with gaskets or O-rings and fasteners are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... electrochemical cell. Crevice attack can be very rapid and usually gives little warning because it occurs in generally nonvisible areas. Figure 2 shows a simplified schematic diagram of one model of crevice corrosion. Fig. 2 Mechanism of crevice corrosion at a joint. Crevice corrosion is common at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... consideration of the many factors that influence corrosion including stress, velocity, galvanic coupling, concentration cells, initial surface conditions, and contamination of the surrounding medium. Over the years, experience has been the best criterion for selecting the most suitable alloy for a given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists of an anode (which liberates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes typically by metal dissolution and/or metal oxide formation) and a cathode (which gains electrons and typically liberates...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonuniformities, such as those created by differential aeration cells or by heavy metals plated out on the surface. Localized corrosion in a microscopic sense results from galvanic coupling and stray-current effects. Joints fastened by mechanical fasteners—bolts, screws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and set up a concentration cell. With stagnant solutions that have limited supplies of oxygen, the stainless alloys cannot maintain their passive protective films. The presence of chlorides only accelerates the reaction. Figure 15 is a schematic of such a crevice. In cold exhaust applications, there...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... galvanically coupled to the titanium alloy sample such that a specific anode-to-cathode surface area is established. Impressed cathodic charging tests are performed in electrolytic cells containing a specific electrolyte. A power supply (potentiostat or galvanostat) impresses a constant potential or current on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... exchangers (radiators and heater cores) or new engine/motor designs (fuel cell technology or heavy-duty engines with new exhaust gas recirculation (ERG) systems), will require engine coolant technology to continue to change to keep up with these improvements. The cooling system has several functions, but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... cathode (hafnium) component of the cell. For this reason, care must be exercised in the use of dissimilar wire or bolting systems when placing hafnium coupons in multicoupon test racks. Any suspension system must be well insulated to get meaningful corrosion rates. The effect of impurities generated by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... corrosion of aluminum or cadmium is slight when these two metals are coupled in a galvanic cell, because of the small difference in electrode potential between them. Contact of aluminum with more cathodic metals should be avoided in any environment in which aluminum by itself is subject to pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... form and rate lead corrosion will have. Figure 1 illustrates two typical examples of contact between lead and other metals. In the presence of an electrolyte, such a dissimilar-metal couple forms a galvanic cell in which the more anodic metal is corroded. A difference in potential sufficient to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... are in direct contact in a structure. This metal coupling allows the formation of a galvanic corrosion cell having different electromotive force (voltage), depending on the potential values of the metals in contact ( Table 1 ) ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4 Schematic presentation of corrosion reaction in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... dependent. Fig. 1 Galvanic series for seawater. Dark boxes indicate active behavior of active-passive alloys. Creating a galvanic series is a matter of measuring the corrosion potential of various materials of interest in the electrolyte of interest against a reference electrode half-cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... stagnant areas where passivity breaks down through the action of a differential aeration cell. In soft water, aluminum coatings exhibit a potential that is positive to steel; therefore, they act like a noble coating. In seawater or in aqueous environments containing Cl − or SO 4 2− , the potential of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is now connected to a second electrode whose interfacial properties and global electrode potential do not change on their own at the same instant in time and by the same degree as on the first electrode, then a galvanic cell is momentarily created that induces a further difference in anodic and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... environments in which selective leaching of iron leaves a brittle graphite network. Selective leaching of the iron takes place because the graphite is cathodic to the iron, and the gray cast iron structure establishes an excellent galvanic cell. While graphitic corrosion of gray cast iron is considered a form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... excellent galvanic cell. While graphitic corrosion of gray cast iron is considered a form of selecting leaching, its mechanism on a microstructural level is similar to galvanic corrosion. This form of corrosion generally occurs only when corrosion rates are low. If the metal corrodes more rapidly, the...