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gallium recovery process

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article introduces the mechanism of diffusion and the common types of heat treatments such as annealing and precipitation hardening, which are applicable to most ferrous and nonferrous systems. Three distinct processes occur during annealing: recovery, recrystallization, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... detailed account of the applications of selective plating, with examples. The article describes the advantages, limitations, key process elements, and health and safety considerations of selective plating. It also includes the most important industrial, government, and military specifications. brush...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract For chemical processing, niobium resists a wide variety of corrosive environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. This article focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion resistance of niobium alloys in these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-state NMR, sample-spinning requirements, and extraneous signals is then included. Various factors pertinent to accurate calibration of the NMR spectrum are also described. The article provides information on some of the parameters both beneficial and problematic for processing NMR data. It ends with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion of the basic fracture modes, including dimple ruptures, cleavages, fatigue fractures, and decohesive ruptures, and of the important mechanisms involved in the fracture process. It then describes the principal effects of the external environment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications, lighting, information display, electronic processing and electronic devices, optical and ophthalmic products, and communications equipment. architectural glass biomedical glass dental glass glass fibers lamp glass optical glass specialty glasses traditional glasses GLASS in its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Table 1 lists numerous applications for tantalum in the chemical processing industry and in other industries. Table 1 Applications for tantalum equipment Product Operation Industry Equipment Remarks Acetic acid, crude Recovery from wood distillate Chemical Bayonet heaters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Spike recovery, % Aluminum (Al) 4 98 Arsenic (As) 10 84 Antimony (Sb) 3 95 Barium (Ba) 1 94 Beryllium (Be) 4 90 Boron (B) 70 90 Calcium (Ca) 30 95 Cerium (Ce) 1 84 Chromium (Cr) 5 93 Cobalt (Co) 1 88 Gallium (Ga) 3 88 Germanium (Ge) 4 84...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... casting alloy limits. Decimals .1, and .2 concern ingot compositions, which after melting and processing should result in chemistries conforming to casting specification requirements. Alloy families for casting compositions include the following: 1 xx.x : Controlled unalloyed (pure) compositions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... based on m / z values. The process is typically electrically driven, while many traditional analyzers use magnetic fields for the separation. Various mass analyzer options include, but are not limited to, quadrupole, triple quadrupole, magnetic sectors, time of flight, ion trap, and orbitrap. Two of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that are processed from naturally occurring raw materials or synthetic powders. This definition includes so-called traditional ceramics (e.g., whiteware, structural clay products, and refractories), advanced ceramics (i.e., ceramics that have highly developed properties for critical applications), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ion-exchange column. An injection valve capable of switching a sample loop in and out of the flow path is generally used to introduce samples into the column. The most common separation mode in IC is ion exchange. While the use of natural materials for ion-exchange processes dates to biblical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... many highly corrosive environments, particularly oxidizing and chloride-containing process streams, has led to widespread nonaerospace (industrial) applications. Stemming from decreasing cost and increasing availability of mill and fabricated products, titanium and its alloys have become standard...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... silver palladium electrodes and cofiring in air ambient. Current trends in capacitor technology are increasingly toward integrated device packages where the capacitor is processed in thin- or thick-film form. Development of ferroelectric thin films for memory applications should accelerate this trend...