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fused-filament fabrication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., electron beam melting, and binder jet three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and feedstock methods, such as fused-filament fabrication and thermoplastic 3-D printing. It discusses the characteristics, processing steps, properties, advantages, limitations, and applications of these technologies. binder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., Autodesk, Inc. Extrusion with Filament Danforth ( Ref 29 ) introduced the concept of fabricating 3D ceramic objects using the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method (used mainly to fabricate plastic objects) in 1995 at Rutgers University, termed fused deposition of ceramics (FDC). Brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to describe material flow through the extruder and high-fidelity continuum models of temperature distributions during filament distribution, or mechanical responses as deposited filaments cool. Lumped-Parameter Material Flow In most MEX machines, the extrusion device consists of a filament drive system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract Filament winding is a process for fabricating a composite structure in which continuous reinforcements, either previously impregnated with a matrix material or impregnated during winding, is placed over a rotating form or mandrel in a prescribed way to meet certain stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... developed. In the case of carbon fibers, the need for woven fabrics to form complex shapes brought a request for smaller tows. The resulting 1000-, 3000-, and 6000-filament tows are now used to produce woven goods. In another example, resin systems reinforced with glass, carbon, or boron fibers were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... by DTM Corporation ( Ref 8 ), but similar machines are also made by EOS GmbH in Germany ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 2 Selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping system. Courtesy of DTM Corporation Hot Melt Extrusion Fused deposition modeling (FDM) material comes in solid form as a filament...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the relative market importance of various aerospace textile intermediate forms: Woven 90+% Filament winding 5% Braided <1% Knit <1% Prepregs (a) (a) Depends on prepreg manufacture and its market segment/product line Hybrid Fabrics Hybrid fabrics are those woven...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... drying is required. Single-end rovings have become the preferred product for many filament-winding and pultrusion applications. Woven Roving Woven roving is produced by weaving fiberglass rovings into a fabric form. This yields a coarse product that is used in many hand lay-up and panel molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... of a piston will deposit and fuse with the adjacent part that has already been deposited ( Ref 10 , 11 ). However, it is difficult to directly shape ceramics into filaments, due to their brittle mechanical property. Therefore, to use FDM to fabricate ceramic components, the ceramic particles are mixed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... can fine tune such properties as density, cost/pound, processing viscosity, strength, and flame-retardant characteristics. Reinforcing-fiber characteristics such as density; fiber diameter, strength, and modulus; fiber-filament bundle size; and woven-fiber fabric type or chopped-fiber form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of (a) film/sheet, (b) annular tube, (c) fiber/filament, and (d) profile Typical Materials and Their Properties Materials to be used in extrusion are typically thermoplastics with high viscosities (low melt index) and high melt strengths. The typical melt flow index (MFI) for extruded thermoplastics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in lamp filaments, electron tube grids, heating elements, and electrical contacts. However, they have since found application in the aerospace, electronics, nuclear and high-energy physics, and chemical-process industries. Each of the refractory metals, with the exception of rhenium, is consumed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... printing. The most common method of melt extrusion uses a ram extrusion mechanism to feed a plastic filament from a spool into a print head. There it is heated and softened, then pushed through a die and onto a build platform. The fundamental process is controlled by managing the phase changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., fiber placement, filament winding, and contoured tape laying have systematically reduced the cost of fabricating parts using traditional thermoset (TS)—materials that undergo chemical reaction during cure—resin systems. There remain, however, pocket applications that require better target properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... If the part is a body of revolution, then the process is similar to filament winding (see the article “Filament Winding” in this Volume). If the part is more nearly planar, then special care in the design of the part, tooling, and process may be necessary. As the laminate is built up, out-of- plane forces...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... products into a vehicle. Encapsulated parts are produced primarily by two basic techniques: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) injection molding and reaction injection molding, in which a urethane type material is used. The fabrication technique is to clamp a glass part in a machined mold and inject the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... For any size, 3D printing can accommodate the filament by directly submerging it into the thermoplastic substrate or including a trench that is slightly smaller than the wire to offset the material displaced by submerging the wire. Other metals such as nickel titanium have also been used with shape memory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... y y y n n Twin-sheet forming 1 0.15 10 1120 6.0 65 n n n y y y n y n n Twin-sheet stamping 1 0.15 30 3370 6.0 65 n n n n n y n y y n Thermoforming 0.1 0.015 n/a n/a … … n n n y n n y y n n Filament winding 0 0 n/a n/a … … n/a y...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... technique) England 1830 Sintering compacts of various metals Europe 1859 Platinum fusion process 1870 Patent for bearing materials made from metal powders (forerunner of self-lubricating bearings) United States 1878–1900 Incandescent lamp filaments United States 1915–1930 Cemented...