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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Furnaces are one of the most versatile types of industrial appliances that span many different areas of use. This article discusses the classification of various furnaces used in heat treating based on the mode of operation (batch-type furnaces and continuous-type furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the types of furnace atmospheres required for heat treating. These include generated exothermic-based atmospheres, generated endothermic-based atmospheres, generated exothermic-endothermic-based atmospheres, generated dissociated-ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... introduced into the furnace. Such control is achieved through the use of atmosphere-control devices. These various devices and instruments can effectively control endothermic, exothermic, nitrogen-methanol, nitrogen-hydrocarbon, and nitrogen-hydrogen-type atmospheres. Most...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Batch furnaces and continuous furnaces are commonly used in heat treating. This article provides a detailed account of various heat treating equipment and its furnace types, including salt bath equipment (externally heated, immersed-electrode and submerged-electrode furnaces), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... remain in the furnace with less thermal or mechanical shock; these include support beams, hearth plates, combustion tubes, radiant tubes, burners, thermowells, roller and skid rails, conveyor rolls, walking beams, rotary retorts, pit-type retorts, muffles, recuperators, fans, and drive and idler drums...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... multichamber furnaces. They are also used to monitor the status of stationary magazines, loading/unloading stations, and charge cars in automated heat treatment production cells. The principle of operation for this type of sensor is the reflection of a beam emitted by the sensor from a reflecting surface. Some...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the heat, the three arcs or phases act as a single phase. Two arcs can strike the furnace charge and draw current without a current going to the third arc or electrode. Because of the type of scrap used and the arc lengthening and shortening that take place, there is a great fluctuation in the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the design parameters, operation, characteristics, properties, and advantages of various types of crucible furnaces, such as stationary, tilting, and movable furnaces. It also provides information on the application of the crucible furnaces. crucible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... first type uses atmosphere austenitizing followed by salt quench and the second type employs austenitizing salt baths with rapid transfer to the quench salt. The article provides a detailed account on the construction, advantages and disadvantages, and limitations of isothermal quenching furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-type units have been built with a capacity of over 2200 M T (2400 tons) powered by 6 inductors rated at 6000 kW each for holding applications. Induction furnaces require much cleaner scrap than cupola furnaces and somewhat cleaner scrap than electric arc furnaces. The capital costs are higher than...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the cupola known as the well, where it is discharged into the foundry from the taphole by intermittent tapping or by continuous flow of molten metal and slag. Melting in cupola furnaces dates back several centuries to old cask-type units that were blown with hand-pumped bellows and hand charged with...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inclusions. While the existing types of inclusion material that would be present in melting and holding furnaces and/or transfer ladles will vary from foundry to foundry, their removal is essential for proper molten metal cleanliness. A number of commercially accepted melt treatment techniques are being...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... moisture left in the sow or ingot, thus making it safer to charge. The stored thermal energy (Btus) provides further energy savings in maintaining the melt. Table 1 Melt loss and themal efficiency of electric and gas reverberatory furnaces Melt Type Melt loss, % Thermal efficiency...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... atmospheres used can be categorized into three major types: oxygen probe, infrared, and dew point. Direct oxygen or dew point monitoring devices are also often used for applications such as bell furnace annealing. The oxygen probe is an in situ type device; that is, it directly samples the atmosphere to be...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., which is then used to pour the molds ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). Fig. 1 Typical lift-out type of fuel-fired crucible furnace, especially well adapted to foundry melting of smaller quantities of copper alloys (usually less than 140 kg, or 300 lb) Fig. 2 Typical lip-axis tilting crucible furnace used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and work hardening. Finally, the article provides information on the equipment used for the heat treating of copper and copper alloys, including batch-type atmosphere furnaces, continuous atmosphere furnaces, and salt baths. annealing bronzes cold forming copper copper alloys dispersion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In the handling of molten aluminum, it is fairly common to use filters as a part of the melting unit and in the gating and/or riser system. This article describes the methods of in-furnace and in-mold filtration, with emphasis on the filtration of molten aluminum. It discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... heat treating of unalloyed uranium: molten baths, inert-atmosphere furnaces, and vacuum furnaces. The type of furnace chosen depends primarily on desired final properties and material quality. Uranium has been heated in molten lead for 50 h at 350 °C (660 °F) with no appreciable reaction. Longer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... terminals for a junction between the thermocouple element and leadwire used for connection to the instrumentation. A typical application is a car-bottom annealing furnace used up to 1100 °C (2000 °F) with an air atmosphere. An 8-gage type K or N thermocouple in a ceramic protection tube is selected...