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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article focuses on the construction, operation of electric arc furnaces (EAF), and their auxiliary equipment in the steel foundry industry. It provides information on the power supply of EAF and discusses the components of the EAF, including the roof, furnace shell, spout and tap...
Image
Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 39 Reactor used to perform gas nitriding. 1, muffle furnace; 2, outer shell; 3, heater; 4, internal container (retort); 5, gas inlet pipe; 6, exhaust pipe; 7, motor; 8, fan; 9, metal-made jig; 10, gas guide cylinder; 11, inverted funnel; 12, vacuum pump; 13, effluent gas combustion More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH The coil arrangement should be installed in a very sturdy cylindrical furnace shell. The induction coil should be completely fixed to a high number of magnetic yokes, which are positioned side-to-side, for highest possible coverage. A rectangular profile of the coil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... In batch furnaces, the load is heated for a fixed time and then discharged from the furnace. There are different types of batch furnaces, such as box, integral quench, pit, and car bottom. The batch furnace, in general, consists of an insulated chamber with an external reinforced steel shell, a heating...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... vacuum process, countergravity low-pressure inert atmosphere process, countergravity pressure vacuum process, supported shell technique, loose sand vacuum process, and countergravity centrifugal casting process. countergravity centrifugal casting low-pressure countergravity casting mold filling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... Furnaces used to carry out sintering of hardmetals typically use carbon-base insulation, heating elements, hearth plate, trays, and other furnace fixtures to maintain a reducing atmosphere during sintering. Electric resistance heating is commonly used inside a water-cooled steel shell. Furnace and process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the pattern materials used in investment casting, which can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. The patternmaking process, pattern tooling, and pattern and cluster assembly are described. The article also describes the manufacture of ceramic shell molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract Various types of furnaces have been used for cast iron melting. In terms of tonnage, the primary melting methods used by iron casting facilities are cupola and induction furnaces. This article describes the operation and control principles of cupola furnace. It discusses the advantages...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 7 Schematic showing the steps of the countergravity centrifugal casting process. (a) A mold is placed in a chamber using the supported shell technique. (b) The mold is filled using the countergravity low-pressure air or countergravity low-pressure inert atmosphere casting technique. (c More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Horizontally Loading Furnaces Horizontally loading furnaces ( Fig. 3 ) normally consist of a cylindrical shell free of vacuum or gas leaks, with circular convex end plates or doors. It should be noted that there have been some rectangular-shaped vacuum furnaces manufactured to accommodate special product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... Flash Dewaxing Flash dewaxing is carried out by inserting the shell into a hot furnace at 870 to 1095 °C (1600 to 2000 °F). The furnace is usually equipped with an open bottom so that wax can fall out of the furnace as soon as it melts. Some of the wax begins to burn as it falls, and even though...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in cupola equipment, including preheated air blast, recuperative hot blast systems, and duplex electric holders. It discusses the shell, intermittent or continuous tapping, tuyere and blower systems, refractory lining, water-cooled cupolas, emission-control systems, and storage and handling of the charge...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and long-term use of steel crucibles and resistance furnaces has been successful in the casting of aluminum alloys. Tilting Furnaces Tilting furnaces incorporate a crucible that is supported in the shell such that both are free to rotate on an axis. This allows the molten metal to be poured...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., approximately 20 to 30%, because the bath receives heat only from the surface. Arc furnaces are sized in terms of shell diameter; this determines the bath capacity, depending on the thickness of refractory used. Typically, a 2.7 m (9 ft) furnace would hold a 9 to 11 tonne (10 to 12 ton) bath, and a 3.4 m...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... furnace from iron ore, limestone, and coal (coke) (see Fig. 1(a) ). Because it contains excessively high levels of silicon, manganese, carbon, and other elements, this liquid iron, together with scrap and fluxing agents, is then introduced into either a basic oxygen furnace or electric-arc furnace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...” in Heat Treating , Volume 4 of the ASM Handbook. Batch Furnaces The basic batch furnace normally consists of an insulated chamber with an external reinforced steel shell, a heating system for the chamber, and one or more access doors to the heated chamber. Standard batch furnaces such as box, car...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 17 Submerged arc welding setup for steam-drum shell course. Based metal: carbon steel, 0.35% max C (ASTM A 515, grade 70), normalized. Filler metals: low-carbon steel (E7018) for root passes (shielded metal arc welding); 0.5% Mo steel for remaining passes (submerged arc welding). Source More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Chromite sand Zircon sand Heat-cured resin binder processes Shell process (Croning process) Furan hot box Phenolic hot box Warm box (furfuryl/catalyst) Oven bake (core oil) Cold box resin binder processes Phenolic urethane Furan/SO 2 Free radical cure (acrylic/epoxy...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... essentially of a metal shell lined with refractories. This lining forms a melting chamber, the hearth of which is bowl shaped. Three carbon or graphite electrodes carry the current into the furnace. Steel, either solid or molten, is the common conductor for the current flowing between the electrodes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The large majority of the commercially important glasses are processed from a carefully calculated batch of raw materials that is then melted in special furnaces. Providing an introduction to melting practices of glass production, this article focuses on various finishing methods...