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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article focuses on the construction, operation of electric arc furnaces (EAF), and their auxiliary equipment in the steel foundry industry. It provides information on the power supply of EAF and discusses the components of the EAF, including the roof, furnace shell, spout and tap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-acquisition (SCADA) system is used to monitor, collect, and store data from multiple pieces of equipment. burners configurable controllers flow measurement control systems fuel-fired furnaces heat treating furnaces mechanical motion component programmable logic controllers pumps quench agitators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., pots, blowers, sensors, belts, hangers, bellows, and dampers. Typically, the furnace accessories and the furnace chamber are exposed to the same conditions as the parts being processed, and thus, performance of furnace components depends not only on temperature exposure but also on the environment (or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... consist of a fluid supply source, normally a tank for each fluid component, and a flow-control panel. The tank or tanks are located outside the plant, and the panel is normally situated inside the plant at the furnace. Figure 6 shows a typical supply arrangement. The flow-control panel usually includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... Flue gases in a direct-fired furnace are the effluent products created by combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. The composition of these gases inside a furnace contains a mixture of some, or all, of the following principal components: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes the effects of furnace atmospheric elements on steels. These elements are air, water vapor, molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The article provides useful information on six groups of commercially important prepared atmospheres classified by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the roll forming of components of nickel, titanium, and aluminum alloys. The metallurgical characteristics of the roll formed components, such as macrostructures, microstructures, tensile strength, and stress rupture performance, are discussed. The article...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the electrical circuit, with the surrounding copper coil being the primary. In a coreless furnace, the entire metal content of the crucible is the secondary. Fig. 1 Components of a coreless-type induction furnace. (a) Operational elements. (b) Cross section showing water-cooled copper induction...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a semicontinuous batch furnace, which is a commonly used piece of heat-treating equipment. The design of a semicontinuous batch furnace is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Semicontinuous batch furnace Continuous furnaces consist of the same basic components as batch furnaces: an insulated...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article illustrates the basic components of dry and wet hearth reverberatory furnace. It discusses stack melters that are used for aluminum metal casting, as they are efficient in sealing the furnace and using the flue gases to preheat the charge materials. The article describes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... as a ladle liner), and liners for electric induction melting furnaces. Crucible melting can also be used as a component of quality-adjustment equipment between melter and casting furnaces to alter the chemistry and temperature of the melt for control of such factors as porosity content prior to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... blast recuperative hot blast systems duplex electric holders refractory lining water-cooled cupolas emission-control systems THE CUPOLA is basically a simple cylindrical shaft furnace that burns coke for fuel. The heat generated is intensified by the blowing of air through the heated bed of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., and bearings, extensive use is made of combined-flow quenching tempering, normalizing tempering, nitrogen case hardening, and carburizing units. Continuous furnaces consist of the same components as batch furnaces: an insulated chamber, a heating system, and access doors. Continuous furnaces move...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... furnace throughout its lifetime. The durability of typical electrode and ceramic components of submerged-electrode furnaces is described in Fig. 6 . Alloy electrodes can be replaced with graphite electrodes, which are renewed as they become consumed without disconnecting them ( Fig. 9 ) or shutting off...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Aluminum fluxing is a step in obtaining clean molten metal by preventing excessive oxide formation, removing nonmetallic inclusions from the melt, and preventing and/or removing oxide buildup on furnace walls. This article discusses the solid fluxes and gas fluxes used in foundries. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the major atmosphere component is industrial gas nitrogen, which is supplied to the furnace from a system consisting of a storage tank, a vaporizer, and a station controlling pressure and flow rate. The basic components of industrial gas atmosphere systems are illustrated in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... problems. Other gases, larly oxygen, can cause similar problems (see the section “Deoxidation of Copper Alloys” in this article). There are many potential sources of hydrogen in copper, including the furnace atmosphere, charge materials, fluxes, external components, and reactions between the molten...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... orientation using beta treatment. It lists the typical mechanical properties of DU as functions of the amount of cold work and hardness data of uranium rod, and describes the annealing of cold-worked DU. The article also describes the heat treatment of dilute alloys of DU, focusing on the three basic furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., through an example, the general application of design of experiments techniques to locate and tune vital process parameters. The devices used in the control process of mechanical components are also reviewed. atmosphere furnaces case depth heat treatment mechanical motion component process...