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full-scale testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and gas industry, where it is usual to inspect lengths of pipes of 50 m (165 ft) or more from a single test location, with application to the full range of pipe sizes in use in that industry. Figure 1 shows the pulse-echo concept and an example of GWT in use. Its use is complementary to pipeline...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... involved all influence the burning process. As a result, no two fires are alike, and it is difficult to develop meaningful laboratory simulations. Both the relatively simple tests performed on basic polymers and their compounds and the larger scale tests performed on fabricated structures are criticized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... disadvantage of Rockwell type tests, for which 15 standard and 15 superficial scales were developed. Not one of these scales can cover the full hardness range. The HRA scale covers the broadest hardness range, but it is not commonly used. In the Vickers test, the load is applied smoothly, without impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... properties into the test material. The hardness of the material is quantified by using one of a variety of scales that directly or indirectly indicates the contact pressure involved in deforming the test surface. Because the indenter is pressed into the material during testing, hardness is also viewed as the...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specific, wear-critical applications. German standard DIN 50-322 elucidates a convenient method for grouping types of wear tests. The six levels of wear testing are as follow: (1) field testing (e.g., a truck for hauling rock), (2) full-scale machine test stand trials (e.g., the truck carrying a known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... vertically and amplitude data represented in gray-scale shades or colors. A- and B-scans are generally not acquired for production inspections of composite structures. The magnitude of data storage requirements for acquiring the full waveform data required for A- and B-scans has limited production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... evaluation of coating system performance prior to full-scale field installation can be employed to determine which of the candidate systems will perform the best. This article describes methods for qualifying coating systems, discusses the pros and cons of using manufacturer-generated data versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., laser tracker, coordinate measurement machines Either angle/angle stereo image or angle/time-of-flight allows measurement of surface profile of the object. Reverse engineering, dimensional metrology, crack and pit detection Limited to visible surfaces Intuitive; can be applied over wide scale from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... effects would be restricted to a small region of the full test height. The true stress corresponding to each of these true strains is given by Eq 10 , with h values taken from Fig. 6 at D 0 / h 0 = 0. Fig. 6 Extrapolation method to correct for end effects in compressive loading. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... other, and, simultaneously, the D/A converter is incremented and its output summed with the scaled output of the active potentiometer. In this way a continuous output ramp is obtained that has a slope of 0.2 V/rev. The resolution of this device is ±1 mV or ±0.03 rad. The minimum rotation speed is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... useful technique for identifying phases present in amounts too small to be detectable by x-ray diffraction or determining the spatial relationships with other phases. Because all periodic structures can diffract, arrays of dislocations, phase boundaries, and precipitates on a small scale can be detected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... their most basic descriptions, TQM and CI represent full organizational commitment to a system focused on “doing the right thing right the first time” and not merely meeting but exceeding customer requirements ( Ref 8 , 9 ). They are focused on process improvements, generally in a production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... structures, impurities are frequently segregated to the center and top or to the surface of the ingot, creating regions of low workability. Because chemical elements are not distributed uniformly on a microscopic or a macroscopic scale, the temperature range over which an ingot structure can be worked is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 25 μm (1 mil) thick coatings on steel at three tropical sites after 2 years of exposure Coating Corrosion rate, full exposure test Jungle Town Coast μm/yr mil/yr μm/yr mil/yr μm/yr mil/yr Tin 0.18 0.007 1.02 0.04 3.02 0.12 80Sn-20Zn 0.46 0.018 1.35 0.053 2.87...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... scales, or uneven accumulation of corrosion product on the metallic surface. Routine cleaning maintenance can sometimes control this type of attack. Various forms of impingement attack occur where gases, vapors, or liquids impinge on metal surfaces at high velocities, such as in condensers or heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... avoided by monitoring only the hold period at full load. The loading schedule requires careful attention for successful AE testing. Procedures for an AE test typically specify loads that must be applied (relative to the working load or design load) and upper and lower limits on the loading rate. Fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... adhesive sliding contact has been discussed using a two-dimensional coarse-grained numerical simulation ( Ref 23 ). These simulations revealed the existence of a critical length scale that controls the formation of the particles during the adhesive interaction between surface asperities. Only asperity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... control systems, including contact sensors, noncontact sensors, controllers, energy-flow regulators, measurement instruments, and set-point programmers. Common contact sensors include temperature scales, thermocouples, and resistance temperature detectors, whereas optical pyrometers and on-line radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... scale), is presented in Table 1 ( Ref 2 ). Not surprisingly, the more highly alloyed stainless steels exhibited the best performance. Because strict adherence with the first category in Klar's rating scheme (no rust or rust stain) is difficult to achieve for P/M specimens, this category is often...