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full-film lubrication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film oil or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses from prior processing. The fine structure of the metal surface also may vary with prior history and be quite different from that of the bulk material. The surface roughness also varies in many geometrically significant ways. Interposed between these nonhomogeneous surfaces is a lubricating film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (145 to 190 °F) for 3 to 5 min. Some soaps are formulated to react chemically with the zinc phosphate coating, resulting in a layer of water-insoluble metal soap (zinc stearate) on the surfaces of the slugs. This coating has a high degree of lubricity and maintains a film between the work metal and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... normal to the tool surface. In hydrostatic extrusion, a fluid film between the billet and the die exerts pressure on the deforming billet ( Fig. 1c ). The hydrostatic extrusion process is primarily used when conventional lubrication is inadequate, for example, in the extrusion of special alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... details postcoating application quality requirements, including measuring of dry-film thickness, assessing intercoat cleanliness, verifying minimum and maximum recoat intervals, performing holiday/pinhole detection, conducting cure/hardness testing, and assessing adhesion of the applied coating system...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... density in order to attain the same final density. If these two green compacts were joined as one piece, the region of higher green density would shrink less to reach full density, whereas the adjacent region of lower green density would be constrained from shrinking further and would not reach full...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... as the design on the handles of stainless steel teaspoons, the lubricant must be used sparingly. A film of soap solution is usually sufficient. Excessive amounts of lubricant adversely affect workpiece finish and interfere with transfer of the design. When coining items that do not require transfer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Thus, a fluid chosen for its lubricating qualities must be directed so that it can form a film at the sliding surfaces. Likewise, a fluid used for cooling must gain reasonable access to the cutting edge of the tool. These conditions usually require that the fluid be forced into the cutting zone so that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., dried soap or wax films (lubricant No. 8) are less effective than lubricants No. 5, 6, and 7. (b) Typical fillers are chalk, lithopone, white lead, talc, mica, zinc oxide, clay sulfur, and graphite. Blanking and piercing of aluminum alloy flat stock are ordinarily done in punch presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... seizure between the work and the mandrel. It is important to select a mandrel lubricant that will adhere to the mandrel and to use the correct amount so that it does not drip into the dies during the swaging operation. Dry film lubricants work well in this application and have none of the drawback of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... because the forging technology for these two emerging titanium materials remains under development. Conventional titanium alloy forgings are produced on the full spectrum of forging equipment, from hammers and presses to specialized forging machines. Selection of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... construction necessarily vary with the requirements of the operation. Oil-fired furnaces can be used if gas is not available. The oil must be low in sulfur content to avoid high-temperature oxidation, especially if used in a semimuffle furnace rather than a full-muffle furnace. Electric furnaces are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... temperature, which is the sum of the surface bulk temperature and the instantaneous temperature rise (flash temperature), caused by the local frictional heat flux. Under full-film lubrication conditions, rough surface contacts can experience high hydrodynamic pressure spikes due to surface irregularities. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... depending on the state of the secondary scale at the roll gap HV Vickers hardness of the contacting material HV ox Vickers hardness of the oxide scale h exit Scale thickness at the exit from the roll gap h min Oil film thickness h o Interface heat-transfer coefficient h o...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... along z -axis under Hertzian contact Fig. 5 Subsurface stress under rolling contact The life prediction of rolling-element bearings is based on a statistical analysis of bearing tests performed in a controlled environment (e.g., full-film lubrication, dust free). Given that the...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... between a film and substrate (for example, silver on steel for mirrors, silver on beryllium for diffusion bonding) ( Ref 65 ) Electrical conductive layers (aluminum, silver, and gold) on plastics and semiconductors Low-shear solid film lubricants (for example, silver and gold) ( Ref 107 ) Wear...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specific, wear-critical applications. German standard DIN 50-322 elucidates a convenient method for grouping types of wear tests. The six levels of wear testing are as follow: (1) field testing (e.g., a truck for hauling rock), (2) full-scale machine test stand trials (e.g., the truck carrying a known...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Single-metal systems do not exhibit outstandingly good surface properties, and their tolerance of boundary and thin-film lubrication conditions is limited. As a result, the load capacity rating for a single-metal bearing usually is low relative to the fatigue strength of the material from which it was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... not only produces a tacky, viscous fluid which ensures adequate fluid-film lubrication under most conditions in healthy joints, but also combines with protein to form a very effective boundary lubricant. The slipperiness of cartilage-coated bone ends is well known, and this led to the early concept of...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... evolve. This is directly related to the wide range of densities used in P/M products: from very low-density metallic forms to low- and medium-density filters and self-lubricating bearings, and high- and full-density structural parts. In the most widely employed technique, powders are compacted into green...