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fuel nozzles

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., often permit flame hardening to be done by a variety of methods. These include the spot or stationary method, progressive method, spinning method, and the combination progressive-spinning method. This article provides information on fuel gases used in flame hardening and their selection criteria for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... diffusion and exothermic brazing. The article explains joint design, filler materials, fuel gases, equipment, and fluxes in the brazing methods. The article also describes the brazing of steels, stainless steels, cast irons, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, and titanium and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... are obtained, the cost (purchase, rental, or depreciation) for each piece of equipment should be added to the estimate, along with the operating costs (gasoline, diesel fuel, additional compressed air, electric power, or electric generators). Leaving items out of an estimate obviously is problematic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... controlled chemical reactions to remove preheated metal by rapid oxidation in a stream of pure oxygen. A fuel gas/oxygen flame heats the workpiece to ignition temperature, and a stream of pure oxygen feeds the cutting (oxidizing) action. The OFC process, which is also referred to as burning or flame cutting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... degradation Today (2008), cast cobalt alloys play an important role in aero- and land-based gas turbines. While vacuum cast nickel alloys predominate in the hot sections of modern aero turbine engines, cobalt alloys are routinely specified for particularly demanding applications, such as fuel nozzles and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... This article focuses on coatings used in the two basic types of Generation 3 nuclear reactor designs in the United States: the boiling water reactor (BWR) and the pressurized water reactor (PWR). Both are cooled by deionized water (light water or H 2 O) and use enriched uranium fuel. Nuclear reactors...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... system consists of compressed gas cylinders, gas pressure regulators, hoses, and a welding torch. Oxygen and fuel are stored in separate cylinders. The gas regulator attached to each cylinder, whether fuel gas or oxygen, controls the pressure at which the gas flows to the welding torch. At the torch, the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... clean than honed or ground parts. In addition, an extremely high degree of cleanness without damage is required on some expensive delicate parts (e.g., fuel injection equipment). Ultrasonic cleaning with alkaline solution, followed by spray with alkaline and immersion/spray rinsing is ideal for this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... popular methods of classifying furnaces is based on the heating or energy input method. It can be divided into combustion-based heating, electric heating methods, and aerodynamic furnaces where heat is generated by rotation of a fan ( Ref 10 ). With combustion-based (fuel-based) process heating, heat is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with a nozzle and a canister for containing powder. The principle of operation for this gun is illustrated in Fig. 4 . Powder falls through a metering valve in the bottom of the canister into a stream of aspirating gas, which propels it to a stream of fuel gas that has been diverted through a valving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... application for LPC is components used for fuel-injection systems, such as nozzle bodies. Figure 16 shows the specification of a nozzle made of 18CrNi8 material after heat treatment. The special challenge during case hardening of this component is to guarantee homogeneous carburizing despite the complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The major advantages include reduced inertia, friction and fuel consumption, lower mass, and improved wear resistance. Sialon, SiC, and silicon nitrite are the primary material candidates in these engines. Ceramics for aerospace applications have traditionally focused on coatings, used for their...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... turbines and airframe hot sections due to their high-temperature strength coupled with excellent resistance to high-temperature combustion environments. Cobalt alloys typically are used in static gas turbine engine components, such as fuel nozzles, brush seals, vanes, and combustor components. Near the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Carburization and metal dusting Nitridation and carbonitridation Sulfidation Chloridation Steam generators or boilers use heat to convert water into steam for use in various applications. A primary application is electric power generation. Fuels used in most fossil-fuel steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The waste generator treats the water phase so it can be released to the sanitary sewer for further treatment by the local wastewater treatment company. The water phase should not go into a waterway. The oil that is discarded of can be rerefined or used in the supplemental fuels program. The disposal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... quality coal to produce coke is characterized by low contents of ash (<15%), inert material, and sulfur and high content of fixed carbon ( Ref 4 ). Coal carbonization is carried out in coke ovens to produce metallurgical coke, which is the solid fuel burned in air inside the ironmaking reactor to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... discharge well below 100 ppm. Concentrated emulsions should be removed by an authorized hazardous waste hauler and incinerated in a fuels blending program. Most emulsified solutions separate when cooled, given enough settling time. The oils can be skimmed off, and the emulsion concentrate will float on...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... application for polystyrene is for small, delicate airfoils. Patterns for such castings are incorporated into composite wax/plastic assemblies for integral rotor and nozzle patterns. These airfoils are extremely thin and delicate; they would be too fragile if molded in wax because even a single chip or crack...