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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article contains a table that lists the properties of various fuel gases, namely, acetylene, hydrogen, methane, methyl acetylene propadiene, propane, propylene, and natural gas. It discusses shielding gases, their mixtures and uses in gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Heat treating involves the use of fuel gases for heating and gases in the furnace atmosphere. This article describes the hazards associated with furnace atmospheres and the related safety considerations. It discusses the effect of fuel on combustion efficiency. The article also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... such as diffusion and exothermic brazing. The article explains joint design, filler materials, fuel gases, equipment, and fluxes in the brazing methods. The article also describes the brazing of steels, stainless steels, cast irons, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, and titanium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... In addition to providing information on the equipment used, the article describes the properties of fuel gases (acetylene, natural gas). It also presents an overview of the effect of OFC on base metal and explains the application of OFC in cutting thin, medium, and thick sections, bars, and structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., often permit flame hardening to be done by a variety of methods. These include the spot or stationary method, progressive method, spinning method, and the combination progressive-spinning method. This article provides information on fuel gases used in flame hardening and their selection criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in an automated system. The gas-oxygen is mixed in the torch body and is adjusted using the needle valves on the torch. Gas-air combinations can be mixed at the torch or, alternatively, a central mixing system can be used to supply many torches, particularly in automated applications. The typical fuel gases...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Cutting tips have a single cutting oxygen orifice centered within a ring of smaller oxyfuel gas exit ports. The operator changes the cutting capacity of the torch by changing the cutting tip size and by resetting pressure regulators and control valves. Because different fuel gases have different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... as fuel gases in welding metals with lower melting temperatures, such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, lead, and some precious metals. Metals unsuited to OFW are the refractory metals, such as niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten, as well as the reactive metals, such as titanium and zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... be explosive under some conditions. Fuel gases, such as acetylene or propane, are other common flammables often found in cutting and welding areas. Special attention should be given to fuel gas cylinders, hoses, and apparatus to prevent gas leakage. Combustibles that cannot be removed from the area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... Gas Handling A variety of industrial gases and liquids are used directly for thermal spray processing. These include various carbon-base fuel gases, hydrogen, oxygen, inert gases, reactive gases, and kerosene. Although some process gases are chemically inert, serious harm and death can result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... Flashback arrestors must be specifically rated for the gas in use and should be considered for every thermal spray system. They provide protection against flashbacks and reverse flow of fuel gases or oxygen or air. In addition, some of the safety features that are found singly or in combination in flashback...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... progressively as the flame head moves from one end of the work to the other. The quench follows immediately behind the heating head, either as an integral part of the head or as a separate quench ring. Fig. 7 Combination progressive-spinning flame hardening Fuel Gases Several different fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...-to-fuel ratio, and the pressure in the combustion zone. Temperatures for common fuel gases range from 2540 to 3150 °C (4600 to 5700 °F). What is not commonly appreciated is the great heat generated by these processes. Standard oxyfuel spray torches operate at energies of 20 to 50 MJ (20,000 to 50,000 Btu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... processes. Consequently, the quantity of fumes emitted is normally lower. The gases formed are the reaction products of fuel-gas combustion and of the chemical reactions between the gases and other materials present. The fumes emitted are the reaction products of the base metals, coatings, filler metals...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be welded in a single pass. Gases Oxygen and acetylene are the principal gases used in OFW. Oxygen supports combustion of the fuel gases. Acetylene supplies both the heat intensity and the atmosphere needed to weld steel. Hydrogen, natural gas, propane, and proprietary gases are used only...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The operator changes the cutting capacity of the torch by changing the cutting tip size and by resetting pressure regulators and control valves. Because different fuel gases have different combustion and flow characteristics, the construction of cutting tips, and sometimes of mixing chambers, varies according...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the individual cells and electrically connects them in series in a fuel- cell stack. In some designs, the bipolar plate also contains gas channels that feed the reactant gases to the porous electrodes and remove the reaction products and inert gases. Bipolar plates made from graphite resin mixtures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... with established confined-space safety and lockout/tagout procedures. Other appropriate safety procedures may also be beneficial. Furnace Atmosphere Gas Reactions Flue gases in a direct-fired furnace are the effluent products created by combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. The composition of these gases inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... atmosphere safety hazards brazing carbon monoxide induction heat treating nitrogen sintering THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE is comprised of 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapor, and 1% other gases. Most metals oxidize in the presence of oxygen and water vapor, forming metal oxides that, at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... dioxide and carbon monoxide are two other important gases when processing steel. At austenitizing temperatures, carbon dioxide reacts with surface carbon in a steel surface to produce carbon monoxide. The most common hydrocarbon gases added to or found in furnace atmospheres are methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C...