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frictional heating

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... atoms such as molybdenum and aluminum was observed during plasma nitriding of titanium α + β alloys ( Ref 16 , 64 , 65 ). The high nitriding temperature of titanium α + β alloys permits the use of it in lieu of the heat treating processes such as quenching and aging as well as cyclic treatment ( Ref...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperatures, and severe frictional conditions at the interfaces of the tool, chip, and workpiece. Most of the work of plastic deformation and friction is converted into heat. In cutting, approximately 80% of this heat leaves with the chip, but the other 20% remains at the tool tip, producing high temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... FRICTION AND WEAR are important when considering the operation and efficiency of components and mechanical systems. The friction between contact surfaces in motion results in wasted energy and generated heat, whereas any type of wear can lead to a degradation in surface quality, unexpected clearances, a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... heat-cured and self-cured acrylic denture resins correlates with scratch measurements and values of flexural modulus of elasticity ( Ref 214 ). The abrasive wear rate of denture resins was much higher than that of composites, alloys, or teeth ( Ref 215 ). The frictional behavior and surface failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... An expression for the temperature increase due to deformation heating, including an estimate of the heat generated by friction at the platen/specimen interface, was developed by Zhao ( Ref 8 ): (Eq 6) Δ T = h a σ a h T ( α ε ˙ + m ν a h a ) [ 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic response of equipment. The article reviews the determination of friction coefficient using laboratory monitoring methods, indirect measurements, and the inverse method. It considers the determination of the interface heat-transfer coefficient by using the ring test and computer simulations. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... FRICTION WELDING (FRW) is a process in which the heat for welding is produced by direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy at the interface of the workpieces without the application of electrical energy, or heat from other sources, to the workpieces. Friction welds are made by holding a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Frictional heating is important in the ultrasonic, vibration, and spin welding methods. In ultrasonic welding, heat generation depends on the storage and loss moduli of the polymer. In the cases of vibration and spin welding, heat generation depends on the frictional coefficient of the polymer material and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The surfaces are then quickly brought into contact, held under pressure, and allowed to cool, forming a bond. Methods used to heat the surfaces include heated tools and platens, hot gas, focused infrared energy, and laser beams. In friction (mechanical) welding, parts are first put in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the transmission of motion through friction (clutches), and for deceleration and stopping (brakes). In these applications, mechanical energy is converted into frictional heat, which is absorbed and dissipated by the friction material. Copper-base materials are preferred because of their high thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the fundamentals of tribology. It describes the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of pin-on-disk method, which is the most commonly used configuration for testing biomaterials and for the reproducible measurement of friction and wear. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of formulas, tables, and analytical solutions, addressing hundreds of heat-transfer scenarios encountered in science and engineering. With detailed explanations and dimensioned drawings, the article demonstrates how to set up and solve real...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of formulas, tables, and analytical solutions, addressing hundreds of heat-transfer scenarios encountered in science and engineering. It also demonstrates how to set up and solve real-world problems, while accounting for material properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., nickel-aluminum bronzes, silicon bronzes, and beryllium bronzes. This article briefly discusses the types, hardening mechanisms, heat treatment processes, applications, and mechanical properties of these bronzes and high-copper alloys. beryllium-copper alloys cast aluminum bronze cast beryllium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... current trend in the forging of heat-resistant alloys is to lower the strain rate and to heat the dies. Faster strain rates lead to frictional heat buildup, nonuniform recrystallization, and metallurgical instabilities, and are also likely to cause radial-type ruptures, especially in high-γ′ alloys such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Furnaces are one of the most versatile types of industrial appliances that span many different areas of use. This article discusses the classification of various furnaces used in heat treating based on the mode of operation (batch-type furnaces and continuous-type furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the types of furnace atmospheres required for heat treating. These include generated exothermic-based atmospheres, generated endothermic-based atmospheres, generated exothermic-endothermic-based atmospheres, generated dissociated-ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...