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friction stir processing

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... higher than that of the unreinforced-matrix alloys. Hardness increases with increasing volume fraction of reinforcement and is affected by processing variables. Also, the addition of ceramic phase in metallic matrices improves the friction and wear behavior. Figure 17 shows the wear resistance of A356...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The large majority of the commercially important glasses are processed from a carefully calculated batch of raw materials that is then melted in special furnaces. Providing an introduction to melting practices of glass production, this article focuses on various finishing methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of achieving an optimal balance of properties and performance. Bonding two different titanium alloys can be accomplished by various means such as HIP bonding, inertial welding, or electron-beam (EB) welding. Advanced methods such as friction-stir welding have also been investigated for the joining of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... retarded by this friction, even at very small amounts of solid, there is still enough potential for the flow to cause the exchange of fluid between the mushy zone and the melt pool. Closer to the solidus, where the dendrites are much more interconnected, the surface area/volume ratio is a less important...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are different only in the type and amount of gases blown from the top and bottom. Some processes also differ in the style of the tuyeres used, such as small uncooled tuyeres, cooled tuyeres, or permeable elements. Oxygen is typically blown through the top lance with either inert stirring gas (LD-KG...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that friction heating is the primary heat source in the friction-stir welding process. Deformation, latent heat, and eddy current are the primary volume heat sources. Deformation heat is important for large, localized deformation and fast processes, because the adiabatic heat will increase the local...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-production machines use manual extractors and manpower to extract. Large castings, however, rely on mechanized extractors to do the job. In extracting from horizontal machines, the extractor must overcome the friction acting on the whole interface between the casting and the mold. For vertical machines, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... lamination Powder fluidity index (a) Advantageous Detrimental Powder die-wall coefficient of friction Detrimental Detrimental Length-to-diameter ratio Detrimental Detrimental Upper punch holddown pressure None Advantageous Green tensile strength Advantageous Advantageous (a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (NADCA) standards and guides. Users are advised to obtain the latest editions of these standards. Portions of the section on materials selection are based on R. Shivpuri and S.L. Semiatin, Friction and Wear of Dies and Die Materials, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18, ASM Handbook...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... factor, but fluidity should not be confused with viscosity. Viscosity defines the internal friction of a liquid, and molten metals have a relatively low kinematic viscosity (viscosity divided by density). The kinematic viscosity of metals is much lower than that of water, and so the effect on fluidity is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistance to degradation by weather is important, high-quality acrylics provide the best results. General characteristics of these resins are given in the article “Painting” in this Volume. Hard chromium deposits are used primarily to improve wear resistance and friction characteristics. Because most of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... result of poor welds. A good example is an incomplete consolidation flaw in friction stir welding (FSW). This is a tunnel defect that forms at the intersection of the weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone, and band of material running from the weld nugget toward the joint edge on the advancing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cooling function but make a considerable contribution to the reduction in friction and wear. A combination of the water and oil phase has been realized in water emulsions with oil containing graphite. These products are used very little. Water-based wax emulsions are used for special forging processes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the total number of repairs that are effectively completed on these materials. There have recently been limited studies performed by various academic institutions and government agencies concerning the repair of aluminum and nickel-copper castings using friction stir welding (FSW) processes. Areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... strain measure, both sources of nonlinearity have the same form. This type of nonlinearity is mathematically well defined but often difficult to treat numerically. Boundary conditions such as contact or friction are also sources of nonlinearities. This type of nonlinearity manifests itself in several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-array by numerical processing of an array of previously acquired laser-ultrasonic signals. The article describes the ultrasound generation by thermoelastic mechanism and ablation or vaporization. It illustrates the principle of optical detection of ultrasound with confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer and...