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freshwater environment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the various environments affecting corrosion performance, corrosion protection, and corrosion control. These include freshwater environments, marine environments, and underground environments. The article provides information on corrosion in military...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... 6.5 to 12 even if topcoats are used. Chemicals may penetrate through pinholes, scratches, voids, or discontinuities within the topcoat and cause aggressive attack of the underlying zinc-rich primer. In freshwater environments, zinc may suffer a polarity reversal when in contact with steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... are classified as materials modification, isolation of steels from aggressive environments, and environmental mitigation, including cathodic protection (CP). Carbon or mild steels are, by their nature, of limited alloy content, usually less than 2% by weight for the total of all additions. Unfortunately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... , The Conservation of Archaeological Artifacts from Freshwater Environments , Lake Michigan Maritime Museum , 1988 131. Watkinson D. , First Aid for Finds , 3rd ed. , RESCUE (British Archaeological Trust) , 1998 132. Tylecote R.F. and Black J.W.B. , The Effect of Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Fig. 1 Fasteners that appear solid at the ends may have hidden corrosion damage, such as the wasp-waisting of bilge fastenings. Fig. 2 A backing plate installation distributes stanchion forces. The drain hole in the stanchion base reduces a possible corrosive environment. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... polymers, that are neither anodic nor cathodic to steel. These coatings protect the underlying steel by exclusion of the environment. Because they are neutral, defects such as scratches or through porosity are not expected to cause accelerated galvanic corrosion of the substrate but may allow environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Simulated service testing includes exposures of either structural components or test specimens in environments that are representative of many general service situations. This article discusses the selection criteria of test specimens and methods of assessing the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... be a major consideration for large offshore platforms. The major disadvantage of aluminum for some applications—for example, the protection of painted ship hulls—is that aluminum is too corrosion resistant in many environments. Aluminum alloys will not corrode reliably onshore or in freshwaters...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... corrosive environments, high temperatures, high stresses, and combinations of these factors. This article discusses the mining and extraction of nickel and describes the uses of nickel. It discusses the categories of nickel-base alloys, including wrought corrosion-resistant alloys, cast corrosion-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... significantly influence the properties of aluminum alloys. There are organic coatings or paints that provide a barrier between a corrosive environment and aluminum surface. Inorganic coatings, including claddings, and enhanced oxides, such as anodized films, Boehmite films, and conversion coatings also help...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... , “Corrosion of Metals in Marine Environments,” MCIC Report 78-37, Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Battelle Columbus Laboratories , 1978 10. Beavers J.A. , Koch G.H. , and Berry W.E. , “Corrosion of Metals in Marine Environments,” MCIC Report 86-50, Metals and Ceramics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of chemical composition, heat treatment, welding, and surface condition on corrosion resistance of stainless steels. It discusses the various forms of corrosion and the important factors to be considered when selecting suitable stainless steel for application in specific corrosive environments. chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...) has also defined environmental zones for coating systems ( Ref 4 ): For the most part, these environmental descriptions are somewhat similar to the extent that they progress from a relatively mild, noncorrosive ment to a relatively aggressive environment. The more benign mild environments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... molecule more susceptible to degradation by other environmental influences. Characterizing an outdoor environment is a daunting task. The environment at one end of a bridge may be different than that at another end and different than the center span suspended over water or high in the air. Similarly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... masts Tower cranes Traffic island posts Street and bridge railings On a smaller scale, aluminum-zinc TSCs have been successfully used to protect lawn furniture in corrosive seacoast environments. Thermal Spray Coating Processes Selection of TSCs to Preserve Integrity of Steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and uncoated steel in moving and stagnant seawater and in soil areas Environment Current density, mA/ft 2 Bare steel Coated steel To polarize After polarization To polarize After polarization Moving seawater 30–35 7–10 3–5 1.0–1.5 Stagnant seawater 15–25 4–7 1–3 0.5–1.0 Soil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Preferential dissolution of zinc or nickel, resulting in a layer of sponge copper Select proper alloy for environmental conditions based on metallographic examination of corrosion specimens. Corrosion fatigue Several transgranular cracks Select proper alloy based on fatigue tests in service environment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... materials. However, couples of stainless and copper alloys are often used with impunity in freshwater cooling systems. Iron and steel tend to protect stainless steel in aqueous environments when galvanically coupled. The passive behavior of stainless steels makes them easy to polarize; thus, galvanic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... pipes and tubes, especially during construction, hydrotest, and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas Mothballed and waterflood systems; oil- and gas-handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate-reducing-bacteria (SRB)-produced sulfides Underground pipeline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the protective life of galvanized coatings in various atmospheric environments. The sites were selected as representative of various broad environmental classifications: moderate industrial (urban), suburban, rural, and marine. Within these broad classifications, the following factors are most significant...