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free-edge delamination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of temperature and moisture through the thickness of a laminate. Stresses due to mechanical loads, temperature, and moisture on the laminate are analyzed. The article concludes with information on interlaminar cracking, free-edge delamination, and transverse cracks of laminates. unidirectional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... material and structural discontinuities that give rise to interlaminar stresses ( Fig. 1 ). Delaminations occur at stress-free edges due to a mismatch in properties of the individual layers, at ply drops (both internal and external) where thickness must be reduced, and at regions subjected to out-of-plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the predicted mode shapes). To simplify finite-element modeling, compliant clamps, such as soft rubber grips, can often be approximated as a free-boundary condition. Currently, there is no single accepted procedure for verifying vibration amplitude, coverage, and consistency. However, some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... shear stresses. Figure 7 shows structural elements in which high interlaminar stresses are common. Experience has shown these elements to be prone to delamination. These elements include free edges, termination of plies in taper regions, radius of stiffeners or channel sections, closeout regions of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... layers. Because this transverse stress is usually small, axial cracking in 0° layers may not occur under static loading. However, under fatigue loading, axial cracking can occur, for example, in cross-ply laminates such as (0°/90°) s . In composite laminates, free-edge delamination under in-plane axial...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... operation. To eliminate it, numerous tool configurations were evaluated. Test results show that the countersink that incorporates S-shaped positive-rake cutting flutes produces a fuzz-free countersink edge. This configuration is shown in Fig. 12 . Fig. 12 Optimal countersink drill for aramid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a half-plane subjected to a Hertzian surface load. The stress-intensity factors at the crack tips were calculated from an approximate stress field induced by the contact load in a crack-free half-plane. Several researchers analyzed surface cracks at an angle to a surface acted on by a Hertzian...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... inspection interval is one half of the analytically-predicted life using current spectra and loads. Subsequent inspection intervals are a function of the field inspection capability. Once the structure is inspected and found to be crack free, no further maintenance needs to be performed until the re...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... moisture concentration) and a laminate diffusivity, this module plots either a through-thickness moisture concentration profile or an average mass gain versus time curve. The free-edge delamination module calculates the strain energy release rate ( G value) for a crack extending from the free edge of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the surface produced by milling, routing, drilling, or countersink should be free of delaminations, as shown in Fig. 3 . This carbon/epoxy sample had three machining operations performed–drilling, countersinking and milling of the top surface. Fig. 3 Typical machined surface of carbon/epoxy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... be cognizant of cases where primary loads in the plane of the laminate induce secondary loads that act in the through-thickness direction. Such cases include free-edge stresses in cross-plied laminates under axial loads, radial stresses in curved laminates subject to tangential loads and bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... confuse interpretation of other controlled variables. Test samples can be organized into homogeneous blocks so that primary effects can be studied free from biases caused by the nuisance variables. Reference 1 provides further discussion of nuisance variables and includes sample problems to illustrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cutting flutes produces a fuzz-free countersink edge. If straight- fluted countersink cutters are used, a special thick tape can be applied to the surface to allow for a clean cutting of the Kevlar fibers, but this is not as effective as the S-shaped fluted cutters, as shown in Fig. 10 . Use of piloted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... on tool surfaces. Burr-free or nearly burr-free results can be achieved. All of the common sheet-metal forming methods except rubber-pad forming and stretch forming are used for molybdenum and tungsten. These metals are formed at high temperature to prevent the cracking and delamination that occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... specimen and helps to highlight damage features. The best method for creating an artifact-free specimen is to first impregnate the strike area under vacuum using an epoxy casting resin, followed by the application of pressure during the cure. This encapsulated area will allow sectioning through the center...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress, 2.9 GPa (420 ksi); accelerometers on the outer housing monitor failure Ref 26 (j) Rolling four-ball testing apparatus Top ball drives three lower balls in a tetragonal arrangement; lower balls free to rotate in the cup; all balls 12.5 ( 1 2 in.) diam; upper balls spindle speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...- free or maintenance-free. The trouble ranges from routine maintenance and servicing that ensures performance (such as lubrication), to active monitoring, to instrumented inspections at various intervals, to required overhauls at defined intervals, to mandatory scrapping of life-limited parts. Formal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... precise fiber alignment, and possess high-quality finish on machined edges. There should be no evidence of delamination along machined edges. The laminate should contain no dry fiber regions, voids, or other obvious flaws. If available, ultrasonic C-scan should be employed to nondestructively evaluate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... could be potentially hazardous to human health, both physically and chemically. Free-floating composite fibers are not seen as a particular carcinogenic concern (as opposed to asbestos) due to their fiber diameter to length ratio. However, workers should avoid breathing them. The microfibrils of aramid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... turbocharging system will help. Back-ionization is greatly reduced, and the absence of free ions between the gun and the part promotes better coverage of all surfaces ( Ref 7 ). Inorganic finishes—including metal- and ceramic-based coatings—are applied by a variety of techniques, such as electroplating...