1-20 of 202 Search Results for

free-edge delamination

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of a laminate. Stresses caused due to mechanical loads, temperature, and moisture on the laminate are analyzed. The article concludes with information on interlaminar cracking, free-edge delamination, and transverse cracks of laminates. References References 1. Advanced Composites Design Guide , 3rd...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... or 70 ksi Fig. 2 Increase of number of cracks for [0°/90°/±45°] s laminate subjected to static loading Fig. 4 Delamination in [0°/±45°/90°] graphite-epoxy subjected to static loading. (a) Micrograph of a free edge. 35×. (b) An x-ray of the width. 0.2× Fig. 5 X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Laminates: All constants and matrices; FPF, LPF (8 failure criteria for composite plies; 4 each for homogeneous and core plies); sandwich wrinkling; laminate and layer stress and strain.FEA: Export laminate properties to ABAQUS, ANSYS, ASKA, I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN Notched laminates; ply drop-offs; free-edge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., or countersink should be free of delaminations, as shown in Fig. 3 . This carbon/epoxy sample had three machining operations performed–drilling, countersinking and milling of the top surface. Fig. 3 Typical machined surface of carbon/epoxy composite As with peripheral milling, face milling can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and structural discontinuities that give rise to interlaminar stresses ( Fig. 1 ). Delaminations occur at stress-free edges due to a mismatch in properties of the individual layers, at ply drops (both internal and external) where thickness must be reduced, and at regions subjected to out-of-plane loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... range, refractory metals behave much like low-carbon or interstitial-free steels. For example, recrystallized tungsten, although brittle at low temperature, has 35% uniform elongation and 50% total elongation at 400 °C (750 °F). Cold working strengthens molybdenum and tungsten and makes them less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cutters. For carbon/epoxy structure, the countersink cutters usually have straight flutes similar to those used on metals. For aramid fiber/epoxy composites, testing has shown that a countersink that incorporates S-shaped positive rake cutting flutes produces a fuzz-free countersink edge. If straight...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As received at the laboratory, the spring was clean and free from corrosion products, with no evidence of chemical attack. Radial wear marks on the convex surface indicated that the part had been in relative rotation against its contacting member. The outer tab was worn in the area indicated in detail...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... cutting flutes produces a fuzz-free countersink edge. This configuration is shown in Fig. 12 . Fig. 12 Optimal countersink drill for aramid composites A CO 2 laser with an output of 1500 W generally emits a beam about 20 mm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The power density in this unfocused beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... across the width of a laminate. Free-edge stress distribution is limited to a region approximately one laminate thickness wide. Fig. 3 Approximation of free-edge normal stresses Fig. 4 A curved laminate “C” channel in various loading conditions. (a) Unloaded. (b) Radii open under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... areas into which it penetrates show up well in the radiograph. For example, zinc-iodine solution enhanced the display of ply cracking and delamination in the radiograph of a composite after static testing ( Ref 86 ). With penetrants, damage must come to a free surface (the specimen edge or radiate from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... monitor failure Ref 26 (j) Rolling four-ball testing apparatus Top ball drives three lower balls in a tetragonal arrangement; lower balls free to rotate in the cup; all balls 12.5 ( 1 2 in.) diam; upper balls spindle speed, 1500 rpm; 5.9 kN (1325 lbf) load applied vertically Ref 26 (k...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... microscopy is applied to high-resolution, high-frequency ultrasonic inspection techniques that produce images of features beneath the surface of a sample. Because ultrasonic energy requires continuity of materials to propagate, internal defects such as voids, inclusions, delaminations, and cracks interfere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... laser dye (see the article, “Sample Preparation and Mounting,” in this Volume). The dye allows the mounting resin to be distinguished from the original composite specimen and helps to highlight damage features. The best method for creating an artifact-free specimen is to first impregnate the strike...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of environmental and safety concerns when machining and/or grinding composite components. Fiber dust could be potentially hazardous to human health, both physically and chemically. Free-floating composite fibers are not seen as a particular carcinogenic concern (as opposed to asbestos) due to their fiber diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... be approximated as a free-boundary condition. Currently, there is no single accepted procedure for verifying vibration amplitude, coverage, and consistency. However, some useful general principles include: Minimize variability due to specimen mounting and clamping. Certain types of mounts, for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Reliability can be measured in many ways, but all result in performance that is less than trouble- free or maintenance-free. The trouble ranges from routine maintenance and servicing that ensures performance (such as lubrication), to active monitoring, to instrumented inspections at various intervals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the heat-up rate. Thick glue lines occur in a bonded assembly due to inadequate mating of the facing sheets or blocked fixing rivets, and they result mostly in porosity and voids. However, a thick glue line made with added layers of adhesive is usually free of porosity. Porosity has a significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... variables so that the observed variability does not confuse interpretation of other controlled variables. Test samples can be organized into homogeneous blocks so that primary effects can be studied free from biases caused by the nuisance variables. Reference 1 provides further discussion of nuisance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... stresses. Figure 7 shows structural elements in which high interlaminar stresses are common. Experience has shown these elements to be prone to delamination. These elements include free edges, termination of plies in taper regions, radius of stiffeners or channel sections, closeout regions of sandwich...