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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... difference (Δ T ), °C (°F) Heat transfer coefficient, W/m 2 ·K Free convection Gas … … 2–25 Air Near 0.3 m (12 in.) high vertical wall 30 (55) 4.33 Water Near 40 mm (1.6 in.) diam. horizontal pipe 30 (55) 570 Other liquids … … 50–1000 Forced convection Gas … … 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, <italic>h</italic> Table 15 Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, h Means of heat transfer Btu/h·ft 2 ·°F W/m 2 ·K Air, free convection 1–5 6–30 Superheated steam or air, forced convection 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, <italic>h</italic> Table 15 Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, h Means of heat transfer Btu/h·ft 2 · °F W/m 2 ·K Air, free convection 1–5 6–30 Superheated steam or air, forced convection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Electrical Resistivity (Electrical Conductivity) Magnetic Permeability Example 1: Copper Billet Example 2: Alternate Method for Copper Billet Coil Electrical Efficiency Coil Thermal Efficiency Heat Transfer by Convection Example 3: Free Convection Heat Loss Radiation Mode of Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and three principal thermomechanical phenomena during the laser deposition process: absorption of laser radiation; heat conduction, convection, and phase change; and elastic-plastic deformation. It provides a description of four sets of data used for modeling and simulation of additive manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... gas (e.g., air or a protective atmosphere, such as nitrogen or hydrogen) or liquid (e.g., quenchants, such as water, oil, and other fluids). It also occurs between two fluids or gases that are at different temperatures and/or have different densities. Two types of heat convection are free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., PA 19428 Abstract Abstract This article describes the mechanisms and characteristics of heat transfer in the quenching of steel. This article describes the characterization of boiling heat transfer, including pool boiling, forced convective boiling, and rewetting, which plays a key role...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... between (a) Nukiyama boiling curve and (b) the spectrogram during cooling of a 53.5 mm (2.1 in.) diameter specimen quenched in 10% polymeric water solution. In (a), A = free convection; B = nucleate boiling; C = transition boiling; and D = film boiling. Comparison of Spectrograms Analysis...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on ten rules for the effective production of reliable castings. These rules include good-quality melt, liquid front damage, liquid front stop, bubble damage, core blows, shrinkage damage, convection damage, segregation, residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of eddy current losses, Faraday rings can be cooled using internal water cooling, free convection, and conduction to a large structure. Losses in soft-magnetic materials (approximately directly proportional to frequency) are small compared with those in the copper coil, which are usually proportional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., and residual strain history observed in the heat-affected zone of fusion welded materials. fluid-flow calculation free surface deformation fusion welded materials fusion welding heat affect zone liquid-vapor state solid-liquid state solid-solid state validation vapor-plasma state FUSION...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of tellurium and zinc during the steady-state solidification of indium-antimony crystals. SUBSA, which used transparent quartz ampoules to contain the semiconductor samples, also permitted both astronauts and ground-based scientists to observe semiconductor interface shapes during convection-free steady-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... . The melt flow patterns ( Fig. 27 ) show the interaction of electromagnetic and thermogravitational types of melt convection with approximately similar intensity. The similarity of electromagnetic force melt velocity, and temperature distribution at molten glass free surface is fixed ( Fig. 28a – c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Processing Conference (LAMP‘87) ( Osaka, Japan ), Laser Processing Society , 1987 , p 211 – 216 42. Khadraw A.F. , Othman A. , and Al-Nimr M.A. , Transient Free Convection in a Vertical Microchannel as Described by the Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model , Int. J. Thermophys. , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... for Transport Phenomena Occurring during Metal Alloy Solidification , Part II: Microscopic Considerations, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. , Vol 38 , 1995 , p 1285 – 1296 33. Vreeman C.J. , Krane M.J.M. , and Incropera F.P. , The Effect of Free-Floating Dendrites and Convection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...%, respectively) 15 0.6 1 0.03 KNO 3 -KCl (94.6 mol%, respectively) 23 0.9 7.5 0.3 LiCl-KCl (58.42 mol%, respectively) 63 2.5 20 0.8 Standard Gibbs free energies (Δ<italic>G</italic><sup>f</sup>) of formation for species in molten 2LiF-BeF<sub>2</sub>. Table 2 Standard Gibbs free...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... lower temperature for forming. Convection in Melters Flow in glass melters results primarily from free convection. Heating the melt from above by flames and from within by electricity creates temperature gradients in the melt. The cooling effect of incoming batch and heat losses through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of Pivalic Acid Dendrites under Convection-Free Conditions , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 38 , 2007 , p 116 – 126 23. Wilson A. , Ed., Microgravity Applications Programme— Successful Teaming of Science and Industry , ESA-SP 1290, European Space Agency , Noordwijk, The Netherlands , 2005...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are currently certified for use in surface-mount technology (SMT) applications: Type A: vapor phase Type B: area conduction (that is, linear conduction) Type C: hot bar Type D: convection and convection/infrared (IR) Type E: laser Of these five methods, three are considered to be mass...