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free convection

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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 26 Regimes of free, forced, and mixed convection for flow through horizontal tubes More
Image
Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 27 Regimes of free, forced, and mixed convection for flow through vertical tubes More
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 26 Regimes of free, forced, and mixed convection for flow through horizontal tubes More
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 27 Regimes of free, forced, and mixed convection for flow through vertical tubes More
Image
Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 5 Comparison between (a) Nukiyama boiling curve and (b) the spectrogram during cooling of a 53.5 mm (2.1 in.) diameter specimen quenched in 10% polymeric water solution. In (a), A = free convection; B = nucleate boiling; C = transition boiling; and D = film boiling. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... such as insulated pipes, cooling fins, radiation shields, and composite structures and configurations. composite structures extended surfaces forced convection free convection heat conduction heat-transfer equations mixed convection thermal radiation HEAT TRANSFER is energy in transit as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... coefficients, <italic>h</italic> Table 15 Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, h Means of heat transfer Btu/h·ft 2 · °F W/m 2 ·K Air, free convection 1–5 6–30 Superheated steam or air, forced convection 5–50 30–300 Oil, forced convection 10–300 60–1800...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... difference (Δ T ), °C (°F) Heat transfer coefficient, W/m 2 ·K Free convection Gas … … 2–25 Air Near 0.3 m (12 in.) high vertical wall 30 (55) 4.33 Water Near 40 mm (1.6 in.) diam. horizontal pipe 30 (55) 570 Other liquids … … 50–1000 Forced convection Gas … … 25...
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 3 Schematic showing effect of convection on LBW melt pool configuration. (a) Spherical shape with flat surface typical of low Pr m materials. (b) Shallow and undercut free surface characteristics of high Pr m materials. Numbers in figure identify specific regions: (1) stagnation More
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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 3 Schematic showing effect of convection on laser beam welding melt pool configuration. (a) Spherical shape with flat surface typical of low- Pr m materials. (b) Shallow and undercut free surface characteristic of high- Pr m materials. Numbers in the figure identify specific regions More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... strain history observed in the heat-affected zone of fusion welded materials. fluid-flow calculation free surface deformation fusion welded materials fusion welding heat affect zone liquid-vapor state solid-liquid state solid-solid state validation vapor-plasma state FUSION WELDING...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... extensive remelting, the development of flow channels, and the redistribution of heat in castings. Castings that freeze either quickly or slowly are free from convection problems, as indicated subsequently. Thin-section castings can be fed uphill simply because the thin section gives a viscous...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to contain the semiconductor samples, also permitted both astronauts and ground-based scientists to observe semiconductor interface shapes during convection-free steady-state crystal growth and allowed visualization of ampoule wetting and melt flow. In addition, fluid mechanical computer simulations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...) or liquid (e.g., quenchants, such as water, oil, and other fluids). It also occurs between two fluids or gases that are at different temperatures and/or have different densities. Two types of heat convection are free convection and forced convection. Free convection, also called natural convection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the interaction of electromagnetic and thermogravitational types of melt convection with approximately similar intensity. The similarity of electromagnetic force melt velocity, and temperature distribution at molten glass free surface is fixed ( Fig. 28a – c ). Fig. 28 Distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are currently certified for use in surface-mount technology (SMT) applications: Type A: vapor phase Type B: area conduction (that is, linear conduction) Type C: hot bar Type D: convection and convection/infrared (IR) Type E: laser Of these five methods, three are considered to be mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and frequency selection. It discusses three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation, in induction heating. The article describes the factors affected by a distortion of the magnetic field at the coil end through a schematic illustration of distribution of three magnetic force components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... A thermal convection loop is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Natural circulation loop and salt sampler Purification Molten salts, whether used for experimental purposes or in actual systems, must be kept free of contaminants. Maintaining purity, which involves initial makeup, transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... parameters are shown in Fig. 6 . The interface heat-transfer coefficient for free convection to the environment is 25 W/m −2 · K −1 and for forced convection to the process gases is 100 W/m −2 · K −1 . The laser absorptance is 0.19. Or, the net power input by the laser for this deposit is 19% of 13 kW...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in any of three modes: conduction, convection, and radiation. One must consider which of these to include in the simulation. Conduction (except for some approximation methods) is always included. Convection and radiation effects are often approximated as a single convective boundary condition—convection...