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fracture topography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of imperfections. This article provides a detailed account of x-ray topography techniques, providing information on the historical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., serpentine glide, ripples, tongues, tire tracks, and factory roof, which describes a ridge-to-valley fatigue fracture topography resulting from Mode III antiplane shear loading ( Ref 84 ). The term flutes should also be included in this collection. Flutes exhibit elongated grooves or voids ( Fig. 38 and 39...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the fracture surface. This use is perhaps historical in nature, based on the loss of grain-boundary cohesiveness at elevated temperatures. However, the term dimpled IG fracture is preferred, because it clearly conveys an image of the fracture surface (i.e., the fracture path and the topography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Fracture surfaces are fragile and subject to mechanical and environmental damage that can destroy microstructural features. This article discusses the importance of care and handling of fractures and the factors that need to be considered during the preliminary visual examination. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... topography, reflectivity, and sometimes color. Recording these details requires proper illumination of the fractures, adequate recording equipment, and knowledge of how to use the equipment. The space allotted to photography in a metallurgical laboratory should be determined by the type of work under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined, and a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of plasma surface treatments for plastics. It covers the equipment and methods used in plasma processing, providing detailed explanations of the plasma discharge reactions and how they affect surface state and topography. It also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... by a tri-finned “nail”. Fig. 671 : Region on fracture surface. Note fine striations and secondary cracks. Topography is typical of an austenitic stainless steel that fractured in the corrosive body environment. SEM, 450×. Fig. 672 : One of many “mud crack” pattern areas on fracture surface. They...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... electrical potential of −1.200 mV (versus −0.700 mV for the specimen in Fig. 1048 ). Surface shows brittle striations with typical topography; no evidence of striation fissures. See also Fig. 1050 . SEM, 640× Fig. 1050 Corrosion-fatigue fracture in a specimen of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 that, like...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... titanium alloys Fatigue crack growth fracture topography in a Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti-6242, UNS R54620) forging, α + β processed prior to β heat treatment and aging. Compact tension specimen tested in air at 25 °C (75 °F). As crack growth rate ( da / dN ) and stress-intensity factor (Δ K...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microshrinkage cavities, development of a readily visible ridge pattern and shear lip is highly improbable. This is because the topography of the fracture surface is determined largely by the distribution of porosity and microshrinkage cavities. Fracture surfaces of castings are highly irregular compared with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... topography and the underlying microstructure. Fig. 848 : Metallographic-fractographic profile (fracture surface at bottom left). SEM, 460×. Fig. 849 : Higher-magnification view of field in Fig. 848 . These profiles reveal a duplex microvoid coalescence morphology. Growth of the large primary microvoids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... : Fibrous zone at center of saw disc in Fig. 752 . Note intergranular fracture along prior-austenite grains. The mechanism is probably related to phosphorus segregation at grain boundaries during austenitizing. SEM, 520×. Fig. 755 : Quasi-cleavage topography of small and poorly defined cleavage facets...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... under which failure has occurred. Beginning with a discussion of the various stages of failure analysis of glass and ceramic materials, this article focuses on descriptive and quantitative fracture surface analysis techniques that are used in the examination of glass and surfaces created by fracture and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for coating rough-surface specimens, because metal atoms released from the target are deflected by gas molecules within the chamber and thus approach the specimen from all directions. For example, replicas of ductile fracture surfaces often have an exaggerated topography, and it is difficult to coat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... on the fractal characteristics of the slit-island perimeters. Correlation with the fracture toughness of steels ( Ref 22 ) and brittle ceramics ( Ref 67 ) is claimed. Another method for determining the topography of an irregular surface also uses horizontal sectioning planes. The analysis, although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. Failure analysis information gathering begins with visual examination. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on fracture surface topography, repeated fracture surface features, reflectivity, and color characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...