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fracture topography

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Fracture surface topography of Fe-4Ni (at.%) fatigue cracked at 123 K with Δ K < 10 MPa m (9.1 ksi in. ). (a) Overall IG appearance at low magnification. (b) Higher-magnification SEM resolution of ductile IG fatigue striations More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... information on the macroexamination and microexamination for these alloys. It concludes with a discussion on the several metallographic techniques developed for specific purposes, such as recrystallization studies and microstructure/fracture topography correlations. alpha alloys alpha-beta alloys beta...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 67 Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image from Ti-6Al-4V beta-annealed fatigued plate specimen. (a) SEM at the polished and etched/unetched fracture topography interface showing microstructure/fracture topography correlation. Secondary cracks are a result of intense slip bands. (b) SEM More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 27 Measurement of the stretched zone in a fractured specimen. (a) Crack-tip blunting and the stretched zone. (b) Topography of stretched zone. Source: Ref 17 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract X-ray topography is a technique that comprises topography and x-ray diffraction. This article provides a description of the kinematical theory and the dynamical theory of diffraction. It provides useful information on the configurations of reflection and transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fasteners titanium alloys Fig. 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110 Fatigue crack growth fracture topography in a Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti-6242, UNS R54620) forging, α + β processed prior to β heat treatment and aging. Compact tension specimen tested in air at 25 °C (75 °F). As crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... employed in both the field and in the laboratory. Visual Examination Visual Observations Failure analysis is a process centered in visual examination and analysis. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on differences in fracture surface topography, reflectivity, and color...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of TCF curves for various topographies. The TCF curves can be rapidly generated by closed-form methods for specific depths of an isolated pit or generated using finite-element techniques for specific surfaces under general corrosion attack. Fig. 3 A two-dimensional fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of imperfections. This article provides a detailed account of x-ray topography techniques, providing information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from nanometers to millimeters. The morphology and topography of the fracture surface are generally dictated by the material microstructure and active failure mechanisms. Therefore, quantitative characterization of the fracture surface geometry, that is, quantitative fractography, can provide useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the slit-island perimeters. Correlation with the fracture toughness of steels ( Ref 22 ) and brittle ceramics ( Ref 67 ) is claimed. Another method for determining the topography of an irregular surface also uses horizontal sectioning planes. The analysis, although general in nature, was proposed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Analysis Visual analysis of failed polymer-matrix composites can provide a significant amount of information regarding failure cause. In particular, examination of a composite fracture can be useful in determining the crack initiation site, crack growth direction, fracture sequence, and failure mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in a graphite/epoxy composite. Note fiber bundles and individual fiber pullout. 400×. Source: Ref 2 . (b) Translaminar tension failure with localized area of flat fracture. 2000×. Source: Ref 2 . (c) Radial fracture topography of an individual graphite-fiber failure under translaminar tension. 10,000×. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mm In the SEM, imaging techniques need to be matched to the specimen for best results, and stereographic pairs are extremely helpful in revealing the surface topography. With most SEMs, the fracture surfaces of ceramic specimens need to have a thin coating with a conductive material, usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. Failure analysis information gathering begins with visual examination. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on fracture surface topography, repeated fracture surface features, reflectivity, and color characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and secondary cracks. Topography is typical of an austenitic stainless steel that fractured in the corrosive body environment. SEM, 450×. Fig. 672 : One of many “mud crack” pattern areas on fracture surface. They are believed to be tenacious artifacts created by cracking of thin surface deposits of either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sample via selective-area electropolishing technique. The nickel-base alloy was conventionally heat treated. Fig. 847 : Schematic of selective-area electropolishing. Use of method enables simultaneous study of both the fracture surface topography and the underlying microstructure. Fig. 848...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of tool steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue fractures...