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fracture surface topography analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... employed in both the field and in the laboratory. Visual Examination Visual Observations Failure analysis is a process centered in visual examination and analysis. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on differences in fracture surface topography, reflectivity, and color...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to millimeters. The morphology and topography of the fracture surface are generally dictated by the material microstructure and active failure mechanisms. Therefore, quantitative characterization of the fracture surface geometry, that is, quantitative fractography, can provide useful information regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... The article explains various topographic methods, namely, divergent beam method, polycrystal rocking curve analysis, line broadening analysis, microbeam method, and polycrystal scattering topography, as well as their instrumentation. It also describes the applications of x-ray topography. crystal growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... wafers as large as 300 mm (12 in.) and conducting automated dislocation analysis. Specimen Preparation Sample preparation is critical for x-ray topography to obtain the highest-quality images. X-rays are highly sensitive to surface conditions, and it is important to eliminate any surface features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... on this interaction. Interdependency of Corrosion and Fatigue The interaction of corrosion and fatigue cracking is complex within the holistic life analysis model. Fatigue crack sizes change as a function of time, as does the topography of a corroded surface. This effect is captured by topography correction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... surfaces throughout the failure location. Fig. 8 Mating fracture surfaces of an adhesively bonded wing skin and wing spar. ∼0.2× Other Information from Visual Analysis Other information about the failure can be obtained from a visual analysis of the variations in the color of the resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. Failure analysis information gathering begins with visual examination. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on fracture surface topography, repeated fracture surface features, reflectivity, and color characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... a limited area. Total surface roughness in the image area should not exceed approximately 6 μm for many systems. Typical applications for AFM include: High-resolution three-dimensional surface topography Roughness measurements for polished surfaces Analysis of microscopic phase distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Electronic flash is frequently used in failure analysis photographs, providing accurate color representation and illumination of fracture surface details, including surface topography. As mentioned above, many external flash options are available in addition to the onboard flash that may be included...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the slit-island perimeters. Correlation with the fracture toughness of steels ( Ref 22 ) and brittle ceramics ( Ref 67 ) is claimed. Another method for determining the topography of an irregular surface also uses horizontal sectioning planes. The analysis, although general in nature, was proposed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Analysis An excellent three-dimensional impression of fracture surfaces as well as other rough surfaces, powder particles, and other three-dimensional objects is provided by viewing stereopair micrographs (taken by using accessory tilting or goniometer stages) in a stereoscope. Some instruments...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to fracture of metals, including laps, seams, cold shuts, cracks, inclusions, porosity, fatigue, and stress corrosion cracking. failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination stress corrosion cracking surface defects visual examination Aspects of Failure That Can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... available for in situ fracture studies and have application in the kinematic analysis of deformation. These features make SEM an ideal tool for the study of fracture surfaces. Different fracture modes exhibit unique features that are easily documented by SEM. This article will discuss the basic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... under which failure has occurred. Beginning with a discussion of the various stages of failure analysis of glass and ceramic materials, this article focuses on descriptive and quantitative fracture surface analysis techniques that are used in the examination of glass and surfaces created by fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... environmental and load conditions. The fracture surfaces of the pedigreed test specimens are examined, documented, and analyzed to determine which features are specific to a particular material, process, load, and/or environmental condition. The fractographs can then be used in the analysis of component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...; depth direction 0.5 to several nanometers Extremely small-quantity elements detection, including hydrogen SPA Surface potential analysis … Electric field Topography Several tens of micrometers Slip charge SPM Scanning probe microscopy Electric field Tunnel current Surface and subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to be matched to the specimen for best results, and stereographic pairs are extremely helpful in revealing the surface topography. With most SEMs, the fracture surfaces of ceramic specimens need to have a thin coating with a conductive material, usually a metal, to get the best images. Thin metal coatings...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Identifying microstructural phases and compounds by their crystal structures Characterizing preferred crystallographic orientations by analysis of orientations of individual grains Spatial Resolution Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm Backscattered electron imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of stress, the relative ductility of the material, and the type of loading (torsion, shear, bending, and so on) can often be determined from visual analysis. Finally, a careful macroexamination is necessary to characterize the condition of the fracture surface so that the subsequent microexamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) failures: In-service part failures caused by undesired surface layers: Surface metallurgy, roughness or topography damage associated with metal-removal practices can lead to workpiece rejection during inspection or in-service part failure. In-service part failures caused by metallurgical factors...