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fracture resistance

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... AISI 4340 steel decreases resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. In a series of special heats, it was demonstrated that manganese additions reduce stress-intensity thresholds ( K th ) ( Ref 24 ). Increasing the manganese content also increases the frequency of IG fracture as opposed to ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined, and a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the visual and microscopic characteristics of fractures of cast alloys. The fractures include ductile rupture, transgranular brittle fracture, intergranular fracture, fatigue, and environmentally induced fracture. The article describes the factors that affect the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. Fatigue is an important potential cause of mechanical failure, because most engineering components or structures are or can be subjected to cyclic loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article discusses physical analysis, including slab method and upper-bound method and slip-line field analysis, for calculating stress states in plastic deformation processes. It presents various validation standards and models for evaluating the criterion of fracture for use in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion of the basic fracture modes, including dimple ruptures, cleavages, fatigue fractures, and decohesive ruptures, and of the important mechanisms involved in the fracture process. It then describes the principal effects of the external environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... A change in the relative amount of transverse necking strain prior to fracture As noted previously, there is constraint at the corners of the specimen, causing a resistance to transverse deformation in these regions. Transverse strain is at a maximum at half-width and half-thickness, but...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... treatment. Titanium is known to be highly resistant to corrosion by seawater. However, for certain alloys, components containing very sharp notches or cracks exhibit accelerated crack propagation and thus lose resistance to fracture when exposed to seawater. Exposure to seawater does not appear to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the corrosion resistance of aluminum and aluminum alloys in various environments, such as in natural atmospheres, fresh waters, seawater, and soils, and when exposed to chemicals and their solutions and foods. It describes the forms of corrosion of aluminum and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of low-carbon steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the following: the intergranular fracture, bending impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of AISI/SAE alloy steels (4xxx steels) and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the brittle fracture, ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... confident estimate of the spacing. SEM, 1400× Fig. 613 Fatigue fracture of AISI type 302 spring wire. Failure initiated at grain-boundary damage called “alligatoring,” a condition resulting from overetching during acid cleaning. Alligatoring is always detrimental to fatigue resistance and in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... on its inner-diameter surface to enhance fatigue resistance. The shot-peened part withstood cycles far beyond the number required for acceptance. One effect of peening was to drive the fracture-initiation site to a location well beneath the surface of the forging. The dross inclusion that was the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fasteners during the cold thread rolling process. In Ti-6Al-4V, they readily form during the highly localized plastic deformation that accompanies mechanical working at temperatures below 705 °C (1300 °F). The role of shear-band orientation in fracture resistance is significant: A tensile stress is needed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the presence or absence of plastic deformation. However, it is very important to resist the temptation to fit the matching fracture surfaces together, because this almost always destroys (smears) microscopic features. Fracture surfaces should never actually touch during fracture-surface matching...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... simple manner. It makes it possible to relate the formation of fractal surfaces to the resistance of the atomic bonds to rupture ( Ref 12 ). This method is based on fractal geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry that incorporates a nonintegral (fractal) dimension, D . In other words, the fracture feature is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 8 ). He recorded observations of grain size in fracture control samples as a guide for composition adjustments to resist impact fracture when the bells were struck. In the same year, Mathurin Jousse described a method of selecting high-quality grades of iron and steel, based on the appearance of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parameters affecting wear of ceramics, namely, hardness, thermal conductivity, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance. The next part of the article addresses temperature-resistant applications of advanced ceramics. Specific applications of ceramic materials addressed include cutting tools, pump and...