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fracture replica

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... The appearance of the bottom half of the fractograph (below arrow A) is the result of tears in the first-stage plastic replica and is not representative of the fracture surface. Arrow B indicates a crack in the carbon second-stage replica; arrow C, a particle from the improperly cleaned fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reveal only a portion of the fracture in focus, depending on the coarseness and orientation of the fracture facets. Figure 1 shows an example of a brittle fracture in a low-carbon steel examined in this manner. Figure 1 also shows a LM image of the fracture profile, a LM image of a replica...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... cleaning, replica stripping, organic-solvent cleaning, water-base detergent cleaning, cathodic cleaning, and chemical-etch cleaning. cleaning cracks fractography nondestructive inspection specimen preparation specimen preservation specimen sectioning steel fracture FRACTURE SURFACES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by examination of replicas with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM images in Fig. 28 show the distinctive microscopic features of the three basics types of overload fracture: transgranular brittle fracture (cleavage), transgranular ductile fracture (microvoid coalescence), and brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...; two are indicated by white arrows. See Fig. 1197 , 1198 , 1199 , and 1200 for TEM views of areas at A, B, and C. 0.3× Fig. 1197 TEM p-c replica of an area at the fatigue-crack nucleus at A in the fracture surface in Fig. 1196 , showing “brittle” fatigue striations (such as at the arrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ksi) at 1000 cycles/min, and fracture occurred after 5700 cycles. Figures 705 and 706 are TEM p-c replicas of two areas at A in Fig. 704 , immediately below the notch. In Fig. 705 , fatigue striations are well developed, and suggestions of partly formed dimples are present at a few locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... removed, exposing the sockets that contained them. In both cases, the fracture path followed η-WC interfaces. Microporosity associated with η-phase formation during sintering may account for the apparent role of the phase as a site of fracture initiation. TEM cellulose acetate replica, 4300× (S.B. Luyckx...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 4140. Note striations (arrows) at places where the crack met grain-boundary carbides. TEM replica, 5000× (I. Le May, Metallurgical Consulting Services Ltd.) Fig. 348 Outboard-motor crankshaft, forged of AISI 4140 steel and heat treated to a hardness of 35 to 40 HRC, that fractured in service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...° bending. At center is the same area as in Fig. 23 (reversed left to right) showing slip-band cracks that have grown at slip steps. TEM p-c replica, 2000× Fig. 25 Cleavage fracture in Armco iron broken at dry-ice temperature (−78.5 °C, or −109.3 °F). The light band shows where cleavage followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and wrapping itself around the roll. Note lack of deformation of grains. The fracture surface was cleaned with H 2 SO 4 and was brightened with a solution containing HNO 3 and HF. 1.5× Fig. 616 TEM p-c replica of an area near A, close to the notch, in the fracture in Fig. 618 , showing definite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ) or stylus profilometer ( Ref 79 ) for relatively coarse measurements of surface roughness. Another method for generating profiles nondestructively is to section replicas of the fracture surface ( Ref 30 , 58 , 80 ). The primary concern is to minimize distortion of the slices during cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Transparent tape replica of a fracture surface. See the article “Transmission Electron Microscopy” in this Volume for more information on replication techniques. Fig. 14 Comparison of replica fractographs of a fatigue fracture in an induction-hardened 15B28 steel shaft. Fracture was initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in methanol. The crack path is transgranular (by cleavage). See also Fig. 1175 . TEM p-c replica, 2000× Fig. 1175 A companion fractograph to that in Fig. 1174 , from the same specimen of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, but showing an area farther from the fracture origin. Visible are what appear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... to have contributed to the formation of the fatigue crack. See also Fig. 248 . TEM p-c replica, 1100× Fig. 248 Portion of the area in Fig. 247 , but at higher magnification, showing the inclusions more clearly. Similar inclusions were found near the crack origin in the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Johnson R.W. , A Study of the Pickup of Abrasive Particles during Abrasion of Annealed Aluminium on Silicon Carbide Abrasive Papers , Wear , Vol 16 ( No. 5 ), 1970 , p 351 – 358 10.1016/0043-1648(70)90101-8 4. Kornfeld K. , Celluloid Replicas Aid Study of Metal Fractures , Met...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.9781627081702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... replica of the same area. Different region of the weld shown in Fig. 17 . Original magnification 100× Fig. 19 A handheld device to apply a silicone rubber replica to the workpiece Fig. 20 Applying silicone rubber through mixing snout onto fatigue fracture surface Fig. 21...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... deposit ( Fig. 1 a) on a 4340 steel axle and propagated through the 150 by 150 mm (6 by 6 in.) cross section of the axle. Examination of TEM replicas from within the weld showed the fracture to be intergranular ( Fig. 1 b). The high hardness of the heat-affected zone ( Fig. 2 ) indicated martensite formed...