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fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the visual and microscopic characteristics of fractures of cast alloys. The fractures include ductile rupture, transgranular brittle fracture, intergranular fracture, fatigue, and environmentally induced fracture. The article describes the factors that affect the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article discusses physical analysis, including slab method and upper-bound method and slip-line field analysis, for calculating stress states in plastic deformation processes. It presents various validation standards and models for evaluating the criterion of fracture for use in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the fractal characteristics of fracture surfaces as a means for describing and quantifying irregular, complex curves and surfaces of fractured materials. It describes the important relationship between the profile and surface roughness parameters that yield the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion of the basic fracture modes, including dimple ruptures, cleavages, fatigue fractures, and decohesive ruptures, and of the important mechanisms involved in the fracture process. It then describes the principal effects of the external environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Fracture surfaces are fragile and subject to mechanical and environmental damage that can destroy microstructural features. This article discusses the importance of care and handling of fractures and the factors that need to be considered during the preliminary visual examination. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.9781627081931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined, and a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. Fatigue is an important potential cause of mechanical failure, because most engineering components or structures are or can be subjected to cyclic loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the factors that influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. Because the appearance of IG fractures is often very similar, the principal focus is placed on the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause grain boundaries to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It informs that workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with material factors. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Analysis of the failure of a metal structure or part usually requires identification of the type of failure. Failure can occur by one or more of several mechanisms, including surface damage (such as corrosion or wear), elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. This leads to a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of low-carbon steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the following: the intergranular fracture, bending impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of AISI/SAE alloy steels (4xxx steels) and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the brittle fracture, ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of austenitic stainless steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the following: fatigue-crack fracture, rock...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of pure irons and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the grain-boundary cavitation; slip lines; intergranular...