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fractional factorial experiments

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article presents the three levels of investigations of distortion engineering. On Level 1, the parameters and variables influencing distortion in every manufacturing step must be identified. More than 200 parameters can affect distortion. The design of experiments approach allows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and amount of addition agent, the current density, and the tin-lead content of the anodes (usually 85Sn-15Pb for high-speed plating). Solution temperature and degree of agitation affect composition, especially in high-speed solutions. Multivariable fractional factorial experiments have shown that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... consistently in a shop trial (e.g., a surface flaw). Ross ( Ref 3 ) describes how the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with orthogonal arrays (OAs) may be used to rank the importance of independent variables—OAs are used for design of a fractional factorial experiment (FFE). Analysis of variance finds the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... called factorial design of experiments. Often, the process parameters that can affect the quality of the product are known, but the relative importance is not clear. A sensitivity analysis is then needed, and factorial design of experiments aids in understanding the effects of the process parameters...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... actions are taken at all levels that are based on: Attention to past experiences with similar systems Availability of risk information for all project personnel A sound, aggressive risk and hazard analysis during all phases Development of suitable corrective action and safety programs based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., it is extremely unlikely that simulation alone will ever completely replace the need for industrial experiments, if for no other reason than to confirm the efficacy and accuracy of modeled cogging sequences. Fully hydraulic systems are also available where each die is attached to a separate...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fraction of tin. Solders can be recycled; for example, solders from radiators (usually high-lead alloys) can be sweated out for recovery, but surface-tension forces and alloying limit the amount of solder recovered. In all these cases, the recycled material also consists of copper, steel, or lead. Tin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of an x-ray source is not only related to the total flux of photons it emits but is also dependent on the angular divergence of the radiation. Inside a laboratory x-ray tube, x-rays are generated in all directions from the metal anode, and only a small fraction come through the beryllium window of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... constantly improve and reinvent business processes ( Ref 10 ). The roots of this business system are in the statistical limits set for the maximum number of defects in a product, as a fraction of the total number of opportunities for such defects to occur. To the practitioners of this system, “six sigma” is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... used more often to describe the investigation and subsequent analysis of any unexpected event that causes loss or injury. Accident reconstruction is rarely a simple endeavor and requires personnel with proper training and experience in performing a comprehensive investigation and accurate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Regulation of Surface Engineering” and “Vapor Degreasing Alternatives” in this volume. Cold cleaning is a process for removing oil, grease, loose metal chips, and other contaminants from the surfaces of metal parts. Common organic solvents such as petroleum distillate fractions, chlorinated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... which sensitivity and resolution are important, should have a thin window and small- or medium-area detector. In contrast, a system to be used in a factory for the determination of transition elements in alloys should have a thick window and larger-area detector. In the latter case, resolution usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reported by Manasevit in 1960 ( Ref 2 ). In that experiment, InP was deposited from trimethylindium (TMIn) and PH 3 in a closed-tube system. Later, it was established that many common compound semiconductors could be deposited from metal-organic materials ( Ref 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). Manasevit coined the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... determine the amount of an analyte involved in an oxidation or reduction reaction. In experiments with currents changing continuously in time (e.g., controlled-potential electrolysis), it is more convenient to use counters for the quantity of charge passed. The electrolysis current can be integrated by an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applied during processing, thus providing information on the process and allowing detection early on of flaws in manufactured parts and process deviation. As such, in spite of its complexity and cost, this technique is expected to be cost effective for use in the factory of the future. The principle of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...., from leaks of steam, process fluids, or water; continual condensation; or frequent washing) usually experience accelerated coating failure and aggressive corrosion of the steel substrate. Instead of continually treating the symptoms by maintaining failed coatings and repairing corroded steel, the...