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four-way machine

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... includes four steps: Image acquisition, which results in an image Image preprocessing, to prepare the image for the subsequent image analysis Image analysis, which incorporates object detection and recognition Image interpretation, to draw conclusions and to decide which further action should...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Casting” and Vertical Centrifugal Casting” in this Volume. Molds consist basically of four parts: the mold body, track grooves or roller tracks on the body (these can be absent if the machine has thrust wheels to hold the mold axially), endplates attached to the mold body, and endplate swing locks or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineered components fail predominantly in four major ways: fracture, corrosion, wear, and undesirable deformation (i.e., distortion). Typical fracture mechanisms feature rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack growth by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... caused by heat conducted along the graphite fibers. Two-axis, moving workpiece, the simplest and most common laser cutting system, has fixed optics to simplify laser beam delivery. It is only usable on flat sheet material and takes up at least four times as much floor area as the largest sheet it...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... discussion on abrasive jet machining and ultrasonic machining. It concludes with a discussion on the four categories of factors that affect the abrasive finishing or machining: machine tool, work material, wheel selection, and operational. abrasive belt grinding abrasive belt polishing abrasive...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... mold at elevated temperatures without deforming the casting. Spinning of the mold is realized by spinners. Horizontal machines of all sizes usually use four trunnion wheel spinners to support and spin the mold. A short horizontal mold can be cantilevered (attached at only one end) and spun with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The wire EDM (WEDM) functions in much the same way as the SEDM. The primary differences is that the electrode is a wire ranging in diameter from 0.05 to 0.30 mm (0.002 to 0.012 in.). Today, almost all machines are four-axis centers in which the upper and lower wire guides can move independently of one...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., radial-axial horizontal rolling machines, four-mandrel mechanical table mills, three-mandrel table mills, and automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills. The article provides a discussion on the process control technology and ancillary operations of ring rolling. It describes the methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Unsupported lengths of up to two to two-and-a-half times the blank diameter can be upset in one blow (ratio=2 to 2.5) in steel and up to four diameters (ratio=4) for copper ( Ref 1 ). By enclosing the blank in a die cavity of one-half times the blank diameter, more than two-and-a-half times the blank diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 135 kN · m (600 tonf in.) drive generates a force of about 6.7 MN (750 tonf) at the same location. However, in both machines a 200 ton force is available at 150 mm (6 in.) before BDC. Thus, a 6.7 MN (750 tonf) four-bar press could perform the same forming operation, requiring 1.8 MN (200 tonf) over...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... This cell consists of a robot and four specially designed grinding wheels. The wheels are hydraulically driven from a central unit. Wheel wear compensation is automatic such that the working point of the wheel is at the exact same location from cycle to cycle. Before entering the cell, castings are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... attention to factors that can be grouped into four categories: Machine tool factors Wheel selection factors Work material factors Operational factors Each of these categories is discussed in detail below. This integrated approach to the grinding process is known as the systems approach...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... advantages, particularly in front-to-back off-center loading. In this respect, it performs like a four-point press. Thus, the following relationship holds: (Eq 13) E T = E P + E F + E d At the end of a downstroke, the deflection energy E d is stored in the machine and can be...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... purged and a new alloy introduced for production of a different part within minutes. A cold startup requires less than 1 h to power up and produce parts, while shutdown merely requires turning the power down to an idle mode or off. As an example, during a commercial production run, only the initial four...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and pistons, which are part of a high-pressure hydraulic or hydropneumatic system. Because pressing speeds can be controlled accurately, these presses are advantageous for producing close-tolerance, precision forgings. Fig. 6 Components of a four-post hydraulic press for closed-die forging...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... molds up to 250 mm (10 in.) bolt circle or outside diameter Four for molds from 250 to 380 mm (10 to 15 in.) bolt circle or outside diameter Five for molds from 380 to 480 mm (15 to 19 in.) bolt circle or outside diameter Large-diameter molds or molds for extremely heavy wall castings (>50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... movement of the slides under operator control. Fig. 2 Principal components of a typical machine for hot upset forging with a vertical four-station die Upset forging machines use three die elements to perform their forging function. Two gripper dies are used (one stationary and one moved by the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tool in service depends on proper design of the tool, the accuracy with which the tool is made, selection of the property tool steel, and application of the proper heat treatment. A tool can perform successfully in service only when all four of these requirements have been met...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... practice is to use the term annealing without qualification. Annealing of sheet steel products is performed on a commercial scale by either batch annealing or continuous annealing. In a batch annealing furnace, multiple (four to five) cylindrical cold-rolled steel coils of outer diameter in the range...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... stations. The loading/unloading position of stages one and four, as discussed above, are combined. The arm moves from the load/unload station to the oven and then to the cooling chamber by automatic mechanical control. These machines generally heat one set of molds while another is being cooled and yet...