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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processing components, pulp and paper industries, furnace parts, and boilers used in fossil fuel electric power plants. The article provides a brief introduction on corrosion resistance of wrought stainless steel and its designations. It lists the chemical composition and describes the physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the corrosion mechanisms, challenges, and control methods in service water distribution systems. It provides a discussion on typical designs and water qualities for distribution systems used in fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. It explains how salt chemistry, including acid/base and oxidizing properties, affects corrosion rates and mechanisms. The article also provides information on electrochemical testing and explains how Pourbaix methods, normally associated with aqueous corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract Failures in boilers and other equipment taking place in power plants that use steam as the working fluid are discussed in this article. The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of construction to practical applications. The industries addressed are nuclear power, fossil and alternative fuel, land transportation, air transportation, microelectronics, chemical processing, pulp and paper, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and medical technology, petroleum and petrochemical, building...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in Fossil Fuel Power Plants,” in Corrosion, Volume 13, ASM Handbook, p 985–1010. References References 1. Coal Ash Disposal Manual , EPRI CS-2049, Electric Power Research Institute , Oct 1981 2. Steam: Its Generation and Use , 39th ed. , The Babcock & Wilcox Company , 1978 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... involving the combustion of fossil fuels; the chemical-process industries; and certain marine applications. During the drilling and primary production of oil and gas, low-alloy steels are exposed to crude oil and gas formations containing varying amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), carbon dioxide (CO 2...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the chemistry of the melt using reactions in the molten metal bath) and treating the metal (adding small amounts of materials that affect the nucleation and growth of the solid during solidification). Melting furnaces derive their energy from combustion of fossil fuels or from electric power. The choice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% (HHV) ( Ref 29 ). Cost-effectiveness of methods to improve fossil fuel power plant efficiency Table 8 Cost-effectiveness of methods to improve fossil fuel power plant efficiency Rank Method Cost (a) 1 Reducing condenser back pressure 3.1 2 Increasing to eighth extraction point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
..., biomass, and solar are just a few examples of where thermal spray can play a role in renewable energy solutions, in addition to the more traditional fossil fuel areas such as coal, gas, and oil. As medical technology helps to extend human life spans, medical implants will become more common, and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to the plant materials. Waste flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels may contain several components, such as sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and water (H 2 O), and therefore may display several dew-point temperatures at which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., the electrical utilities industry provided a total amount of electricity of 3.24 trillion GWh, at a cost to consumers of $218 billion. Electrical generation plants can be divided into seven generic types: fossil fuel, nuclear, hydroelectric, cogeneration, geothermal, solar, and wind. The majority of electric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... or an environmental contaminant. On the other hand, there is controversy regarding the extent of environmental and carcinogenic damage caused by coal tar materials. Automotive and power plant emissions from the burning of fossil fuels also release aromatic hydrocarbon combustion products, as does the burning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Waterwall Corrosion The lower furnace of a coal- or oil-fired boiler is essentially a large enclosed volume where the combustion of fossil fuel, as well as the cooling of the combustion products, takes place. The furnace enclosures are made of water-cooled tubes, generally in a welded membrane...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., there are many ways that hydrogen can and will always be present in a melt to a certain degree. Fuel-fired furnaces (natural gas, oil) have hydrogen available from fossil fuel decomposition. Water vapor is almost always present in the atmosphere, even at high temperatures directly in contact with the melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... water systems are needed in laboratories and high-technology manufacturing processes. Service water systems are auxiliary water systems typically using “raw” or untreated water for cooling in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. The primary corrosion challenges are related to the chemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... reduced by 10 to 15%, and the dross formation (oxidation losses) reduced by 20 to 50%. This example also demonstrates how hybrid technologies—such as heating by fossil fuel energy in combination with electroprocessing technologies—lead to an optimal process solution. Fig. 18 Electromagnetic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Corrosion” in this Volume. Fossil Fuel Power Plants With a goal of higher efficiency, engineers are striving to operate the energy conversion equipment at higher temperatures. Materials selection, materials engineering, and surface engineering technologies play a role in protecting components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... load, and much higher efficiency at very low partial load than steam turbines. They also have greater efficiency at high speeds than any of the other fossil-fueled plants. Thus they require the least weight of fuel for a given endurance. Other advantages include low initial cost and relatively low rpm...