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formic acid

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...% aqueous oxalic acid 0.36 14 nil nil … … <0.02 <1 0.36 14 0.10 4 Table 1 Corrosion of copper and 90-10 copper-nickel by formic acid Laboratory tests in deaerated acid at atmospheric boiling temperature; test duration; 96 h Acid concentration, % Corrosion rate Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Within such protective environments, surprisingly corrosive microclimates can exist. Corrosive pollutants such as ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid are often found in higher concentrations indoors than outdoors, inducing an array of chemical, electrochemical, and physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... steels, Incoloy 800, soft metals 2% hydroxyacetic/1% formic 88–96 190–205 Soft metals Ammonium bifluoride (ABF additive), NH 4 F·HF Depends on acid choice Titanium, zirconium, stainless steels, Incoloy 800, soft metals Chelants: EDTA salts, citric acid salts 65–150 150–300 Soft metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on corrosion rates in different concentration ranges of sulfuric acid with and without HF at 80 °C (175 °F). (a) 20% H 2 SO 4 . (b) 80% H 2 SO 4 Fig. 9 Effect of alloying elements on corrosion rates in formic acid and NaCl mixtures, boiling, 24 h Fig. 10 Effect of chromium and molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., protective oxide film on its surface. This film is self-healing and protects the base metal from chemical and mechanical attack at temperatures to 350 °C (660 °F). As a result, zirconium resists attack in most acids, salt solutions, alkaline solutions, and organic media. Zirconium is particularly suitable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of acetic and formic acids Acid Concentration, wt% Corrosion rate mm/yr mils/yr Acetic 10 <0.01 <0.4 30 <0.01 <0.4 50 <0.01 <0.4 70 <0.01 <0.4 99 <0.01 <0.4 Formic 10 0.51 20.1 30 0.66 26 50 1.19 46.9 70 1.27 50 88...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). Unfortunately, deposits from this solution with greater than 10 wt% Cr are rough and porous. Also, a semipermeable membrane is needed to prevent oxidation of trivalent chromium at the anode. Other investigators have reported on the use of a chromic acid/formic acid solution containing ferrous chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 150–530 Glycerol 786–883 114–128 … 360–380 Sulfate-chloride Amidopyrine (b) … … … 500–750 Fluoborate Boric acid … … … 575 Sulfamate Formic acid (c) 676–1068 98–155 … 1200–1500 Sulfonate Antioxidant 15 g/L … … … 650–750 Antioxidant 1.5 g/L … … … 350–400...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Seawater Nitric Acid Sulfuric Acid Phosphoric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Sulfurous Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Acetic Acid Formic Acid Other Organic Acids Organic Halides Other Organic Compounds Stainless steels have been relied on in the food and beverage industry because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of TiO 2 , anatase, or a mixture of rutile and anatase ( Ref 6 ). In dilute reducing acids, a 20 to 100 Å multiplex film consisting of a hydrated titanium sesquioxide (Ti 2 O 3 ) inner layer and a TiO 2 outer layer has been shown to form ( Ref 7 ). Increasing redox potential favors TiO 2 formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) H 2 O, O 2 , inorganic or organic acids H solv + , O 2 , COOH Esters Ethyl acetate (CH 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ), propylene carbonate (CH 3 CHCH 2 CO 3 ) H 2 O, acids, O 2 H solv + , O 2 , COOH Aldehydes Formaldehyde (HCHO) H 2 O, formic acid, O 2 H solv + , O...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 0.01 0.4 0.01 0.4 C-276 N10276 Ni-Cr-Mo 0.01 0.4 0.01 0.4 825 N08825 Ni-Fe-Cr 0.02 0.8 (a) (a) (a) Not tested Table 4 Corrosion rates for nickel alloys in boiling formic acid Common name UNS No. Alloy group Corrosion rate 40 wt% formic acid 88 wt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Heaters to warm storage tanks Formic acid Distillation Chemical Condensers … Fuming HNO 3 Distillation Chemical Multiple bayonet heaters, condensers … Glutamic acid Digesting gluten in HCl, vacuum evaporation of HCl, recovery of HCl Chemical Bayonet heaters, single and multiple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., sweetish taste; hygroscopic; density, 1.11 g/cm 3 ; produces violent reactions and may self-ignite with strong oxidizing agents Fluoroboric acid HBF 4 Corrosive Liquid: aqueous solution, colorless; density, 1.23 g/cm 3 Formic acid HCOOH Corrosive Liquid: aqueous solution, colorless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 10.1149/1.2096868 18. Baedecker P.A. , Edney E.O. , Moran P.J. , Simpson T.C. , and Williams R.S. , “Effects of Acidic Deposition on Materials,” Report 19, State-of-Science/Technology, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program , May 1990 19. Morcillo M...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... in.). The pH values of solutions were adjusted with HCl and NaOH. Test temperature was 60 °C (140 °F). Beyond the limits of the passive range, aluminum corrodes in aqueous solutions because its oxides are soluble in many acids and bases, yielding Al 3+ ions in the former and AlO 2 − (aluminate) ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 20–100 B Formic acid 24–100 75–212 10–100 D Glycerol 24 75 … B Hydrazine 24 75 20–100 D Hydriodic acid 24 75 10–50 D Hydrobromic acid 24 75 10–70 D Hydrochloric acid 24 75 0–10 C Hydrogen peroxide 24 75 10–30 D Isopropanol 24 75 … A Lead...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... acids. In glacial acetic acid at 110 °C (230 °F), alloy 400 has shown a corrosion rate of 0.33 mm/year (13 mils/year). Again, aeration normally increases corrosion rate. Alloys B and D have very good resistance to most organic acids. In either acetic or formic acid at 70 °C (160 °F), the highest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... glycol C 2 H 6 O 2 … Room … A A A A A … … Ferrous sulfide FeS Slurry in water Room … C C C C A … … Fluorine, liquid F … −188 (−305) … … B … … … … … 50% formaldehyde, 50% alcohol … … Room … C Uncoupled B Coupled C (c) C C A … … Formic acid HCOOH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., the corrosivity of organic acids decreases as the carbon chain length of the acid increases. The most corrosive organic acid is formic, followed by acetic and oxalic. Elevated temperatures and the presence of chloride increase attack. Table 2 contains the corrosion-rate data of types 304 and 316L stainless...