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forging laps

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 30 1045 steel crane hook showing indications of forging laps of the type revealed by magnetic-particle inspection. Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 10 Micrograph of a forging lap. Note the included oxide material in the lap. Original magnification: 20× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledgehammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. Original magnification: 65× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 27 Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 28 Microstructure of forging lap in another ski lift grip component. As-polished. Original magnification: 111 × More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 40 50 kN (6 tonf) crane hook showing magnetic-particle indication of a forging lap, and section through hook showing depth of lap More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 33 Lap defect in Ti-6Al-4V bulkhead forging. Source: Ref 66 More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 31 Lap formation in a rib-web forging caused by improper radius in the preform die. Source: Ref 25 More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 32 Lap in a Ti-6Al-4V bulkhead forging. (a) 3.5×. (b) 50×. Source: Ref 26 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Lap formation in a rib-web forging caused by improper radius in the preform die More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... thermal gradients and favor crack formation. Imperfections Created during Forging Many forging defects can be created during the forming process. The defects are almost always caused by improper flow during the forging process. Seams and laps are surface discontinuities that are caused by folding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and titanium alloys, when exposed to a corrosive environment under stress, is also reviewed. The final section of the article describes and shows fractographs that illustrate the influence of metallurgical discontinuities such as laps, seams, cold shuts, porosity, inclusions, segregation, and unfavorable grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) and require less machining to produce the finished component. Fig. 7 Sections of forgings with different sizes of corner and fillet radii. (a) Conventional forging. (b) Corresponding blocker-type forging. Dimensions given in inches Fillets for Prevention of Laps The concurrent forging...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 28 Black light used to reveal magnetic-particle indication of a lap that could lead to potential failure of a forged connecting rod. Courtesy of Magnaflux Corporation More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 31 Typical deformation sequence in closed-die forging of a rib-web part, showing how laps can be generated if preform geometry is selected improperly. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 39 Forging sequence of gridded lead billet used in physical modeling studies to establish the effect of die and preform design on the occurrence of metal-flow defects such as laps. Source: Ref 75 . Courtesy of S. Kobayashi More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and scabs. The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processing led to the initiation of fracture. Forging laps and seams are readily recognized because the surfaces of these imperfections bear none of the characteristic features of fracture. Shrinkage porosity in castings displays dendrite contours within the shrinkage cavities that are unique in shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... around the entire circumference. However, it is always advisable to perform component testing to determine whether seams are detrimental to performance on a given part. Other types of magnetic particle indication that may show up on induction-hardened components are forging laps or cracks, shear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of discontinuities Forgings Laps Bursts Flakes Segregation Cavity shrinkage Centerline pipe Parting line grain flow Inclusions Castings Porosity, gas, and microshrinkage Cavity shrinkage Segregation Cold shuts Inclusions Plate and sheet Edge cracking Laminations Flakes Extrusions and drawn products...