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forgeability test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Workability in forging depends on a variety of material, process-variable, and die-design features. A number of test techniques have been developed for gaging forgeability depending on alloy type, microstructure, die geometry, and process variables. This article summarizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... 6 Specimen for the wedge-forging test. (a) as-machined specimen. (b) Specimen after forging Fig. 7 Suggested rating system for notched-bar upset test specimens that exhibit progressively poorer forgeability. A rating of 0 indicates freedom from ruptures in the notched area. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... The selection of stainless steels may be based on corrosion resistance, fabrication characteristics, availability, mechanical properties in specific temperature ranges and product cost. The fabrication characteristics of stainless steels include formability, forgeability, machinability, and weldability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with limited forgeability. Plane-Strain Compression Test The purpose of this test is basically to determine the yield stress of the material under plane-strain conditions. The results are used to calculate the forces required in processes such as rolling of wide sheet and some regions of the workpiece...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... With the exception of the free-machining grades and hot shortness due to residual elements in the steel like copper, forgeability aspects rarely limit hot forging of carbon and alloy steels into intricate shapes. Workability or, in this case, forgeability, is evaluated in several ways from various types of tests...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... support is needed for those portions of a less forgeable material that are normally exposed to the tensile and shear stresses. The forgeability of metals at various temperatures can be evaluated by using such tests as torsion, tension, and compression tests. In all of these tests, the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by using such tests as torsion, tension, and compression tests. In all of these tests, the amount of deformation prior to failure of the specimen is an indication of forgeability at the temperature and deformation rate used during that particular test. Friction and Lubrication in Forging In forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The use of CAD, manufacture, and engineering also is particularly significant in the forging of heat-resistant alloys because of the premium placed on higher quality and lower cost. On one hand, the thrust of alloy development has been to increase the service temperature, which means lower forgeability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the forgeability of austenitic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, precipitation-hardening stainless steels, and ferritic stainless steels. It concludes with a discussion on the heating and lubrication of dies. austenitic stainless steel cleaning dies ferritic stainless steel forgeability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... on the overall forgeability of the composite at elevated temperatures. Fig. 2 Forging limit-diagrams of 6061 DRA and 2014 DRA tested at a strain rate of 0.5/s and 400 °C (750 °F). Source: Ref 23 Much less work has been conducted on cold forming/forging, due to the more limited ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article begins with discussion on forgeability and the factors affecting the forgeability of aluminum and aluminum alloys. It describes the types of forging methods and equipment and reviews critical elements in the overall aluminum forging process: die materials, die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... variables such as workpiece and die temperature, strain rate, and deformation mode. The article describes the relative forgeability of the ten most widely used aluminum alloys, and reviews common forging equipment, including hammers, mechanical and screw presses, and hydraulic presses. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and practice of open-die forging, with some practical examples. The article illustrates macrosegregation in a large steel ingot and lists the forgeable alloys. It reviews the physical and mathematical models used in deformation modeling. The article explains the contour forging and roll planishing process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of twinning. (Note that at the high strain rates typical of forging, the effects of deformation twinning may be observed at higher temperatures than indicated by the compression test data in Fig. 2(c) measured at a typical laboratory test strain rate of 5×10 −3 s −1 ). Depending on the application...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...–18 12–15 … ZE10A-H24 214–248 31–36 138–172 20–25 6 … Note: Property ranges are dependent on specified thicknesses or diameters of test specimens. The most commonly used magnesium die casting alloy is AZ91D. The AZ91D alloy exhibits good mechanical and physical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... vol% Al 2 O 3 tested at a strain rate of 0.5/s and 400 °C (750 °F). Source: Ref 24 The enhancement of forgeability in particulate composites involves two main factors: matrix grain size and ductility. A finer-grain matrix material forged at elevated temperatures maintains a lower flow stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... are also forgeable but challenging. The copper-nickel alloys have higher forging temperatures as compared to the other alloys. An interesting side note about copper alloys is that in ancient times many of the copper ores that were smelted contained arsenic and hence the copper alloys contained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The bearing stress is obtained by dividing the load on a pin bearing against the edge of a hole by the bearing area, where the area is the product of the pin diameter and the length of the bearing surface. (See ASTM E238 for details of this test procedure.) Working bearing stresses are lowered for joints...