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forgeability

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 11 Cross sections of precision (a) and conventional (b) forgings Fig. 1 Flow stresses of commonly forged aluminum alloys and of 1025 steel at typical forging temperatures and various levels of total strain Fig. 2 Forgeability and forging temperatures of various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... application. This article begins with a discussion on the classes of titanium alloys, their forgeability, and factors affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... variables such as workpiece and die temperature, strain rate, and deformation mode. The article describes the relative forgeability of the ten most widely used aluminum alloys, and reviews common forging equipment, including hammers, mechanical and screw presses, and hydraulic presses. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... modeling studies to establish the effect of die and preform design on the occurrence of metal-flow defects such as laps. Source: Ref 75 . Courtesy of S. Kobayashi Fig. 10 Typical forgeability behaviors exhibited by different alloy systems. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 11 Chart illustrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cycles for conventional (quenched and tempered; top) and microalloyed steels (bottom). Source: Ref 7 Fig. 5 Forgeabilities of various carbon steels as determined using hot-twist testing. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 6 Ductility of two AISI carbon and alloy steels determined in hot torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... steel in various types of furnaces. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 1 Three degrees of forging severity. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 2 Three degrees of upsetting severity Fig. 7 Comparative dynamic hot hardness versus temperature (forgeability) for various ferrous alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... given; for 1.25 to 1.40% C, the low side of the range given. Forging temperatures and forgeability ratings for heat-resistant alloys Table 6 Forging temperatures and forgeability ratings for heat-resistant alloys Alloy UNS designation Forging temperature (a) Forgeability rating (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... 6 Specimen for the wedge-forging test. (a) as-machined specimen. (b) Specimen after forging Fig. 7 Suggested rating system for notched-bar upset test specimens that exhibit progressively poorer forgeability. A rating of 0 indicates freedom from ruptures in the notched area. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... The selection of stainless steels may be based on corrosion resistance, fabrication characteristics, availability, mechanical properties in specific temperature ranges and product cost. The fabrication characteristics of stainless steels include formability, forgeability, machinability, and weldability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the equipment and auxiliary tools used in open-die forging. It discusses the production and practice of open-die forging, with some practical examples. The article illustrates macrosegregation in a large steel ingot and lists the forgeable alloys. It reviews the physical and mathematical models used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 60 Rating system for notched-bar upset forgeability test specimens that exhibit progressively poorer forgeability. A rating of 0 indicates freedom from ruptures in the notched area. Source: Ref 73 Fig. 61 Rolled rings made from two heats of type 403 stainless steel exhibiting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 27 19 36 … … 12 … 3.8 … 0.20 0.02 B 2 Ta S-816 R30816 SS 20 20 42 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 … … 0.38 … (a) Typical end-use condition. PH, precipitation hardened; SS, solid-solution strengthened Forging temperatures and forgeability ratings for heat-resistant alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloys niobium niobium alloys refractory metals tantalum tantalum alloys tungsten tungsten alloys REFRACTORY METALS are forged from as-cast ingots, pressed and sintered billets, or billets that have been previously broken down by forging or extrusion. Forgeability depends to some extent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of typical design limits for rib-web structural forgings of aluminum alloys (a) and nickel-base alloys (b). Dimensions given in millimeters Fig. 2 Influence of forgeability and flow strength in die filling. Arrow indicates increasing ease of die filling Fig. 3 Forging difficulty...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., degrees Draft, in./in. Total taper on diameter, in./in. 1 8 0.00219 0.00438 1 4 0.00436 0.00872 1 2 0.00873 0.01746 1 0.01745 0.03490 Copper-base forging alloys: forgeability ratings and forging temperatures Table 2 Copper-base forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with limited forgeability. Plane-Strain Compression Test The purpose of this test is basically to determine the yield stress of the material under plane-strain conditions. The results are used to calculate the forces required in processes such as rolling of wide sheet and some regions of the workpiece...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is reviewed below. The enhancement of forgeability in particulate composites involves two main factors: matrix grain size and ductility. A finer grain matrix material forged at elevated temperatures maintains a lower flow stress, thus reducing cracking tendencies. The strength of the particle/matrix...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... have poorer forgeability and narrower forging temperature ranges than α-β or β alloys, particularly at temperatures below the β transus. This poorer forgeability is manifested by a greater tendency for strain-induced porosity or surface cracks to occur, which means that small reduction steps...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of Hot Upset Forgings Grain Flow and Anisotropy Parting Line Draft Forgeability Design Requirements Cost Tests and Test Coupons Test Plans Ductility and the Amount of Forging Reduction Grain Flow End-Grain Exposure Machining Stock Allowances Tolerances Flash...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., the forger must be aware of the possible negative implications resulting from the unusual flow behavior shown in Fig. 2(c) , for example, initially low but ultimately high press loads and lowered ductility via crack initiation or plastic instability. In practice, the forgeability of magnesium alloys...