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forced convection

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... illustrating morphological transition under forced convection. Source: Ref 5 Abstract Abstract Semisolid metal (SSM) processing is a special die casting process, where partially solidified metal slurry is injected into a die cavity to form die cast components. This article discusses the flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., PA 19428 Abstract Abstract This article describes the mechanisms and characteristics of heat transfer in the quenching of steel. This article describes the characterization of boiling heat transfer, including pool boiling, forced convective boiling, and rewetting, which plays a key role...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., a magnitude of convection losses can vary dramatically depending on the surface temperatures of the workpiece and the outside temperature as well as workpiece geometry, its surface conditions, the presence of refractory, and whether it is free or forced convection. The heat losses due to forced convection can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, <italic>h</italic> Table 15 Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, h Means of heat transfer Btu/h·ft 2 ·°F W/m 2 ·K Air, free convection 1–5 6–30 Superheated steam or air, forced convection 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the atmosphere) can achieve a very controlled rate of heating, which is ideal for SMT reflow soldering. IR reflow has continued to evolve. Emphasis has been placed on enhancing heat transfer through forced convection (class 3), also known as convection-dominant reflow soldering ( Fig. 1 and 2 ). Convection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, <italic>h</italic> Table 15 Order of magnitude of convective heat-transfer coefficients, h Means of heat transfer Btu/h·ft 2 · °F W/m 2 ·K Air, free convection 1–5 6–30 Superheated steam or air, forced convection...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for melting and holding aluminum is a gas-fired reverberatory furnace. In this arrangement, radiation from the burners, roof, and sidewalls heats the bath and solid charge. Forced convection through stirring or pumping is also needed to overcome a number of process limitations. Without forced circulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... convection and forced convection. Free convection, also called natural convection occurs when a heated workpiece is cooled in still gas or air (e.g., billet soaking or a steel normalizing heat treatment). When air, gas, or fluid circulation is induced by mechanical means, such as a fan, pump or mixer, heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... mils). The coated aluminum is not dried; the wet coated metal goes directly into the furnace. Forced convection is the preferred method of heating furnaces for firing porcelain enamel on aluminum. The heat can be provided by electric-package heaters, quartz-tube electric heaters, or metal-sheath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Natural Convection Calculations of L* and Nu<sub>L*</sub> with Specified Part Shapes General Equation for Any Shape of Parts Forced Convection Calculation of Nu<sub>L*</sub> for Specified Part Shapes Pusher Furnaces Conveyor-Type Furnaces Part and Process Conditions Calculation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Chrome-Alumina Fused Zirconia Fused Alumina-Zirconia Silicates (AZS) Absence of Forced Convection Presence of Forced Convection Melter-Section Sidewall Blocks Submerged Throat Bottom Paving Refractories Furnace Crowns Superstructure Refractories The production of primary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... surface indirectly heated with ten heaters in an attempt to achieve constant surface temperature. They studied the effect of subcooling, jet velocity, immersion, and jet-to-heater spacing on the different boiling regimes. In the forced convection regime, the boiling curve was shifted up with the increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... J.C. , Michaleris P. , and Palmer T.A. , Modeling Forced Convection in the Thermal Simulation of Laser Cladding Processes , Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. , Vol 79 ( No. 1–4 ), 2015 , p 307 – 320 10.1007/s00170-015-6831-x 18. Gouge M.F. , Michaleris P. , and Palmer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and the corrosion products under static isothermal conditions and do provide some much- needed information. However, to provide the information needed for an actual flowing system, corrosion studies must be conducted in thermal convection loops or forced convection loops, which will include the effects of thermal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and growth of the primary phase are controlled using a specially designed reactor. The reactor provides heat extraction, copious nucleation, and forced convection during the initial stage of solidification, thus leading to the formation of globular structures. Experimental results with various commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...; the furnace was shut off and the system cooled down naturally, which could take many hours. Modern HIP systems are often equipped with forced convection cooling, which cools the furnace much faster. The cooling functionality increases HIP system productivity and enables in situ heat treatment. The system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and three principal thermomechanical phenomena during the laser deposition process: absorption of laser radiation; heat conduction, convection, and phase change; and elastic-plastic deformation. It provides a description of four sets of data used for modeling and simulation of additive manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Bromley L.A. , Heat Transfer in Stable Film Boiling , Chem. Eng. Prog. , Vol 46 , 1950 , p 221 24. Bromley L.A. , Heat Transfer in Forced Convection Film Boiling , Ind. Eng. Chem. , Vol 46 , 1953 , p 221 25. Westwater J.W. and Green B.P. , Effect of Diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... setpoint, activating an alarm. Fig. 10 Schematic of the probe used to define the agitation power of a quenching bath with forced convection, and the energy balance. Source: Ref 32 Fig. 11 Changing the temperature of the probe ( T probe ) versus time after submerging the probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... square meter bed surface should be controlled so as not to cause the bed to collapse and not to disturb the fluidization. The heat-removal rate of the immersed cooling tube system is determined by the heat-transfer characteristics of the fluidized bed and forced convection flow through the tubes...