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force measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... information on the factors applicable to the accuracy and precision of AFM measurements. It ends by discussing the applications for AFMs in the fields of science, technology, and engineering. precision atomic force microscopy There are three general types of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... assessing inclusion levels on the shop floor In this technique, a certain volume of metal is passed through a filter, thus forcing the inclusions in the melt to settle and concentrate on the filter. The trapped inclusions are subsequently analyzed metallographically. Methods of analysis based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... data of Moustahfid et al. ( Ref 64 ) by Divinski et al. ( Ref 66 ) suggests that the orientation of the beta-phase plane relative to the rolling plane controls the variants that are formed. In particular, good agreement between measured and predicted pole figures ( Fig. 22 ) is obtained when only one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the specific characteristics of the interface, which vary with time and with casting configuration. Additionally, the value of h cannot be calculated a priori and cannot be explicitly measured experimentally. Instead, analytical or numerical techniques must be used to infer the value of h for a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to decrease continuously at a rate almost equivalent to that measured during actual production ( Fig. 71 ). Under these conditions, the torsion flow stresses increased rapidly ( Fig. 72 ). Using these data, the roll-separating force and rolling torque were estimated for the rolling schedule under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... investigation enables the observation of cavities in greater detail. Optical micrographs with magnifications between 50 and 200× are typically analyzed using commercial software packages (e.g., NIH, Image J) to obtain measurements of several important features of cavities, for example, average radius, shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... assessment will always meet the intent of the POD study. With the information provided in this article, the NDE community will be given greater insight to appreciate the nature of POD determination. The evolution of measurements to help to assure safety of systems has a long history in its development and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... estimated to a first order from measurements of local thickness reduction and width increase. If higher accuracy is desired, finite-element-method (FEM) simulations can be used to predict local strains and strain rates and thus to correlate process variables to failure or microstructure evolution ( Ref 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-working annealing. Surface tension requirements do not permit 90° angles to exist between alpha/alpha boundaries (developed during recrystallization) and alpha-beta interfaces, however. Thus, a driving force is provided for the penetration of beta phase along the alpha/alpha boundaries and subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... properties) as well as process modeling per se. These models may be broadly characterized into three types on the basis of approach and mathematical expression utilized as being phenomenological (based primarily on direct observations/measurements), mechanistic/physics based, or a combination of the two...